Dissection of a 1950s Equipment Tag

A military equipment tag from the1950s is an insignificant and uninspiring piece of military heritage. Mass produced in the thousands, an equipment tag is a disposable item designed to used once and discarded on the completion of its simple task. Now an item of ephemera, this equipment tag which was initially to have a short term use, has been preserved and now provides a snapshot of the activities of the Royal New Zealand Army Ordnance Corps, Central Ordnance Depot during 1955.

Tag 1

AFNZ 513. Robert McKie Collection

The tag examined here is an Army Form NZ-513,[1] and is a tag designed to label small pieces of Army equipment while in transit from one point to another.

The tag measure 122mm long by 60mm high and is constructed of buff coloured manila card. Rectangular in shape the tag has two tapered corners on the edge adjacent to a reinforced aperture allowing the tag to be secured by the use of string or elastic bands.

The tag is divided into three printed areas;

Tag 4

AFNZ 513 -Left side. Robert McKie Collection

  • The left side of the tag is printed with “ARMY DEPARTMENT EQUIPMENT” clearly identifying the Army as the owner of the equipment/item that the tag is affixed to.
Tag 5

AFNZ 513, Top Right. Robert McKie Collection

  • The top right part of the tag is printed with;
    • The Army Form N.Z 513, The system of lumbering military forms is a legacy inherited by the New Zealand Army from Britain where each piece of Army stationery is identified with a unique catalogue number. The inclusion of NZ in the number identifies the form as either a unique New Zealand Army form, or one that has been adopted into New Zealand Army use from British stocks.
    • Following the practice of the time, government departments in the United Kingdom, Canada, Australia and New Zealand franked correspondence from government departments with On Her Majesty’s Service, in this case, OHMS is initialised.
    • The remainder of the panel is printed with space for writing the destination/receiver of the item.

      Tag 6

      AFNZ 513, Bottom right. Robert McKie Collection

  • The Bottom right of the tag is printed with From, with space to write the originator.
  • The rear of the tag is blank with no printing.

The tag would have been printed by the hundreds if not thousand in sheets, with tags torn off and used as required, the attachment point to other tags on the sheet can be seen on the bottom left and right corners of the sheet.

This Tag  has been filled out with the following information;

  • The package is addressed; Mr P Eddy of 105 Gallien St, Hastings
  • It is from; ACCOUNTING OFFICER, C.D. ORDNANCE DEPOT, and has the reference number SA/98/1 of 1 written on the bottom of the tag.
    • The ACCOUNTING OFFICER, C.D. ORDNANCE DEPOT has been placed on the tag by a rubber stamp in blue or purple ink, probably a job allotted to a very junior storekeeper on a slow day to keep them occupied.
    • Based in Linton Camp, The Central Districts Ordnance Depot was the Depot responsible to the NZ Army units based in the Central Districts from 1946. Some it’s functions are still carried out by 21 Supply Company, Royal New Zealand Army Logistic Regiment.
    • The reference number would able to cross-refer to the documentation relating to the package.
    • The 1 of 1 part of the reference indicates that it is a single package.
  • On the rear the following stamps have been affixed to allow postage;
    • six 1s (Shilling) Stamps and
    • two 3d (Three Pence)

This equates to approximate postage to the value of NZD$14 in 2019 currency.[2]

Tag 2

  • There are also two postmarks from Linton Camp NZ with the barely legible date of 27 (unclear) 55.

Based on the information on the tag the following can be determined; at some time during 1955, the Central Ordnance Depot at Linton Comp dispatched by post a small package to Mr P Eddy in Hastings. At the time Peter Eddy was a surgical bootmaker located in Hastings specialising in the construction and repair of orthopaedic footwear.[3] Given Mt Eddy’s occupation, it can be assumed that the package was either footwear or materials requiring the attention of Mr Eddys services.

Tag 3

 

This tag is the survivor of thousands of similar tags that were produced, filled out and served their intended purpose and then disposed of. As a survivor, it has become a unique piece of ephemera providing insights into the much larger narrative of the history of the RNZAOC.

Copyright © Robert McKie 2019

 

Notes:

[1] Abbreviated to AFNZ

[2] “Inflation Calculator – Reserve Bank of New Zealand,” http://www.rbnz.govt.nz.

[3] “New Zealand, Electoral Rolls, Hawkes Bay, Hastings “,  http://www.ancestry.com.au.

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The Pātaka of Ngāti Tumatauenga: NZ Ordnance Corps Locations 1840 to 1996

The New Zealand Army evolved out of the British troops deployed during the 19th century New Zealand Wars into a unique iwi known as Ngāti Tumatauenga – ‘Tribe of the God of War’. While Ngāti Tumatauenga has an extensive and well-known Whakapapa,[1] less well known is the whakapapa of the New Zealand Army’s supply and warehousing services.

Leading up to 1996, the Royal New Zealand Army Ordnance Corps (RNZAOC) was the New Zealand Army organisation with the responsibility in peace and war for the provision, storage and distribution of Arms, Ammunition, Rations and Military stores. As the army’s warehousing organisation, the RNZAOC adopted the Pātaka (The New Zealand Māori name for a storehouse) as an integral piece of its traditions and symbology. On 9 December 1996, the warehousing functions of the RNZAOC were assumed by the Royal New Zealand Army Logistic Regiment (RNZALR).

Unpacked on this page and on the attached Web Application “the Pātaka of Ngati Tumatauenga” the evolution of New Zealand’s Army’s Ordnance services is examined. From a single storekeeper in1840, the organisation would grow through the New Zealand Wars, the World Wars and Cold War into an organisation with global reach providing support to New Zealand Forces in New Zealand and across the globe.

Description of Ordnance Units

In general terms, Ordnance units can be described as:

  • Main/Base Depots– A battalion-sized group, commanded by a lieutenant colonel. Usually a significant stock holding unit, responsible for the distribution of stock to other ordnance installations.
  • Central Ordnance Depots/Supply Company– Company-sized units, commanded by a major. Depending on the role of the unit, the following subunits could be included in the organisation:
    • Provision, Control & Accounts
    • Stores sub-depot/platoon
      • Traffic Centre
      • Camp Equipment
      • Technical Stores
      • Expendables
      • Clothing
      • Returned Stores & Disposals
        • Textile Repair
        • Tailors
        • Boot Repair
      • Ammunition Sub-Depot/Platoon
      • Vehicles Sub-Depot/Platoon
      • Services Sub-Depot/Platoon
        • Bath and Shower
        • Laundry
      • Rations Sub-Depot/Platoon (after 1979)
      • Fresh Rations
      • Combat Rations
      • Butchers
      • Petroleum Platoon (after 1979)
      • Vehicle Depots
    • Workshops Stores Sections – In 1962, RNZAOC Stores Sections carrying specialised spares, assemblies and workshops materials to suit the particular requirement of its parent RNZEME workshops were approved and RNZEME Technical Stores personnel employed in these were transferred to the RNZAOC.[2] [3]
    • Workshops. Before 1947, Equipment repair workshops were part of the Ordnance organisation, types of Workshop included:
      • Main Workshop
      • Field/Mobile Workshop
      • Light Aid Detachments

Unit naming conventions

The naming of Ordnance units within New Zealand was generally based upon the unit locations or function or unit.

Supply Depots were initially named based on the district they belonged to:

  • Upper North Island – Northern District Ordnance Depot
  • Lower North Island – Central Districts Ordnance Depot
  • South Island – Southern Districts Ordnance Depot

In 1968 a regionally based numbering system was adopted

  • 1 for Ngaruawahia
  • 2 for Linton
  • 3 for Burnham
  • 4 for Waiouru

Some exceptions were:

  • 1 Base Depot and 1st Base Supply Battalion, single battalion-sized unit, the name were based on role, not location.
  • 1 Composite Ordnance Company, a unique company-sized group, the name was based on function, not location

When the Royal New Zealand Army Service Corps (RNZASC) became the Royal New Zealand Corps of Transport (RNZCT) in 1979, the supply functions were transferred to the RNZAOC with the 1st number signifying the location with the 2nd number been 4 for all Supply Platoons:

  • 14 Supply Platoon, Papakura
  • 24 Supply Platoon, Linton
  • 34 Supply Platoon, Burnham
  • 44 Supply Platoon, Waiouru
  • 54 Supply Platoon, Trentham

Exceptions were:

  • 21 Supply Company – Retained its name as a historical link to the unit’s long history in the RNZASC.
  • 47 Petroleum Platoon, originally 7 Petroleum Platoon RNZASC, when Transferred to the RNZAOC, as it was based in Waiouru it added the Waiouru unit designation ‘4’ and became 47 Petroleum Platoon RNZAOC

Unit locations New Zealand, 1907–1996

Alexandra

9 Magazines Operational from 1943, closed late 1950’s

Ardmore

20 Magazines operational from 1943

Auckland

There has been an Ordnance presence in Auckland since the 1840s with the Colonial Storekeeper and Imperial forces. The Northern Districts Ordnance Depot was situated in Mount Eden in the early 1900s. In the 1940s the centre for Ordnance Support for the Northern Districts moved to Ngaruawahia, with a Sub depot remaining at Narrow Neck to provided immediate support.

RNZAOC units that have been accommodated at Auckland have been:

Stores Depot

  • Northern District Ordnance Depot, Goal Reserve, Mount Eden 1907 to 1929.[4]
  • Northern District Ordnance Depot, Narrow Neck, 1929 to? [5]
  • 1 Supply Company, from 1989, Papakura
  • 12 Supply Company
  • 12 Field Supply Company
  • 15 Combat Supplies Platoon, 1 Logistic Regiment
  • 52 Supply Platoon, 5 Force Support Company

Vehicle Depot

  • Northern Districts Vehicle Depot, Sylvia Park, 1948-1961
  • Northern Districts Ordnance Depot, Vehicle Sub Depot, Sylvia Park, 1961 – 1968
  • 1 Central Ordnance Depot (1 COD), Vehicle Sub Depot, Sylvia Park, 1968 to 1979
  • 1 Supply Company, Vehicle Sub Depot, Sylvia Park, 1979 to 1989

Ammunition Depot

  • Northern Districts Ammunition Depot, Ardmore

Other Units

  • Bulk Stores Mangere, the 1940s (Part of MOD Trentham)
  • DSS Fort Cautley.

Workshops

Located at the Torpedo Yard, North Head

  • Ordnance Workshop Devonport, 1925-1941
  • No 12 Ordnance Workshop, Devonport, 1941–1946

Workshop Stores Section

  • 1 Infantry Workshop, Stores Section, Papakura 1962–1986
  • 1 Field Workshop Store Section, Papakura
  • 1 Transport Company Workshop, Stores Section, Fort Cautley

Belmont

Operational from 1943

  • MOD Trentham, Ammunition Group, Ammunition Section

Burnham

Stores Depot

1921 saw the establishment of a single Command Ordnance Depot to service all military units in the newly organised Southern Military Command. Before this, Ordnance stores had operated from Christchurch and Dunedin. The new Depot (later renamed the Third Central Ordnance Depot) was established in the buildings of the former Industrial School at Burnham. Re-structuring in 1979 brought a change of name to 3 Supply Company.[6] [7] [8]

  • Stores Depot titles 1921–1996
    • Area Ordnance Department Burnham, 1920 to 1939,
    • Southern Districts Ordnance Depot, 1939 to 1942,
    • No 3 Sub Depot, 1942 – 1948,
    • Southern Districts Ordnance Depot, 1948 – 1968,
    • 3 Central Ordnance Depot (3 COD), 1968 to 1979, [9]
    • 3 Supply Company, 1979 to 1993,
    • Burnham Supply Center,1993 to 1994,
    • 3 Field Supply Company, 1994 to 1996.

Vehicle Depot

  • Southern Districts Vehicle Depot, 1948-1961.

Ammunition Depot

  • Southern Districts Vehicle Ammunition 1954-1961.

Other Ordnance Units

  • Combat Supplies Platoon. 1979 to 19??,
  • Ready Reaction Force Ordnance Support Group (RRF OSG), 19?? To 1992, moved to Linton,
  • 32 Field Supply Company (Territorial Force Unit).

Ordnance Field Parks

  • 3 Infantry Brigade Group OFP Platoon, 21 October 1948 – 28 June 1955.
  • 1 (NZ) Division OFP, Tech Stores Platoon, 28 June 1955 -,

Workshops

  • No 14 Ordnance Workshop, until 1946.

Workshop Stores Section

  • Southern Districts Workshop, Stores Section,
  • 3 Field Workshop, Store Section.

Christchurch

Stores Depot

  • Canterbury and Nelson Military District Stores Depot, King Edwards Barracks, Christchurch, 1907 to 1921.

Workshop Stores Section

  • Southern Districts Workshop, Stores Section, Addington,
  • 3 Infantry Brigade Workshop, Stores Section, Addington,
  • 3 Transport Company Workshop, Stores Section, Addington.

Dunedin

Stores Depot

  • Otago and Southland Military Districts Stores Depot, 1907 to 1921

Fairlie

Nine magazines Operational 1943.

Featherston

Featherston Camp was New Zealand’s largest training camp during the First World War, where around 60,000 young men trained for overseas service between 1916 – 1918. An Ordnance Detachment was maintained in Featherston until 1927 when it functions were transferred to Northern Districts Ordnance Depot, Ngaruawahia.[10]

Glen Tunnel

16 magazines Operational from 1943

Hamilton

Proof Office, Small Arms Ammunition Factory, 1943-1946

Kelms Road

55 Magazines Operational from 1943

Linton Camp

RNZAOC units that have been accommodated at Linton have been;

Stores Depot

  • No 2 Ordnance Depot, 1 October 1946  to 1948,
  • Central Districts Ordnance Depot,  1948 to 1968,
  • 2 Central Ordnance Depot (2 COD), 1968 to 1979,[11]
  • 2 Supply Company, 1979 to 1985,
  • 5 Composite Supply Company, 1985 to 1990.
  • 21 Field Supply Company 1990 to 1996

Vehicle Depot

  • Central Districts Vehicle Depot, 1957-1961

Ammunition Depot

 

Ordnance Field Parks

  • 2nd Infantry Brigade Ordnance Field Park Platoon 1948-48
  • 22 Ordnance Field Park

Workshop Stores Section

  • 1 General Troops Workshop, Stores Section
  • Linton Area Workshop, Stores Section
  • 5 Engineer Workshop, Store Section

Other Ordnance Units

  • 24 Supply Platoon
  • 23 Combat Supplies Platoon
  • 47 Petroleum Platoon 1984 to 1996
  • Ready Reaction Force Ordnance Support Group (RRF OSG), from Burnham in 1992 absorbed into 21 Field Supply Company. [12]

Lower Hutt

Ordnance Field Parks

  • 1 (NZ) Division OFP, Tech Stores Platoon, 28 June 1955 –

Mangaroa

First used as a tented camp during the First World War and in the Second World War Mangaroa was the site of an RNZAF Stores Depot from 1943. The depot with a storage capacity of 25,000 sq ft in 8 ‘Adams type’ Buildings was Handed over to the NZ Army by 1949.[13] The units that have been accommodated at Mangaroa have been:

Supply Depot

  • Main Ordnance Depot,1949–1968,
  • 1 Base Ordnance Depot, 1968–1979,
  • 1st Base Supply Battalion, 1979–1985,
    • ACE(Artillery and Camp Equipment) Group

Ordnance Field Parks

  • 4(NZ) Division Ordnance Field Park(OFP), 1950–1963,
  • 1 Infantry Brigade Group, OFP, 1963–1968,
  • 1st Composite Ordnance Company (1 Comp Ord Coy), 1964–1977,
    1 Comp Ord Coy was the Ordnance Bulk Holding unit for the field force units supporting the Combat Brigade Group and the Logistic Support Group and held 60–90 days war reserve stock. 1 Comp Ord Coy was made up of the following subunits: [14]

    • Coy HQ
    • 1 Platoon, General Stores
    • 2 Platoon, Technical Stores
    • 3 Platoon, Vehicles
    • 4 Platoon, Ammo (located at Moko Moko)
    • 5 Platoon, Laundry
    • 6 Platoon, Bath

Mako Mako

39 magazines operational from 1943

  • MOD Trentham, Ammunition Group, Ammunition Section
  • 2 COD Ammunition Section

Mount Somers

10 Magazines operational from 1943

Ngaruawahia

Ngaruawahia also was known as Hopu Hopu was established in 1927, [15] and allowed the closure of Featherston Ordnance Depot and the Auckland Ordnance Depot and was intended to service the northern regions. During construction, Ngaruawahia was described by the Auckland Star as “Probably the greatest Ordnance Depot”[16] Ngaruawahia closed down in 1989, and its Ordnance functions moved to Papakura and Mount Wellington.
RNZAOC units that have been accommodated at Ngaruawahia have been:

Stores Depot

  • Area Ngaruwahia Ordnance Department 1927 to 1940,
  • Northern District Ordnance Depot, 1940 to 1968,
  • 1 Central Ordnance Depot (1 COD), 1968 to 1979,
  • 1 Supply Company, 1979 to 1989,
  • 1 Field Supply Company, 1984, from 1989, Papakura.  [17]

Ordnance Field Parks

  • 1 Infantry Brigade Group, Ordnance Field Park(OFP), 1968 to 1979, support to Combat Brigade Group

Workshop Stores Section

  • 1 Infantry Brigade Group LAD, Stores Section

Other Ordnance Units

  • Northern Districts Ammunition Depot, Kelms Road

 Palmerston North

  • Palmerston North Detachment, NZAOC, Awapuni Racecourse, 1914 to 1921.[18] [19] [20]
  • Depot Closed and stocks moved to Trentham.
  • Ordnance Store, 327 Main Street Circa 1917-1921.[21]
  • No 2 Ordnance Sub Depot, Palmerston North showgrounds, 1942 to 1946 when depot moved to Linton.

Trentham

Stores Depot

  • Main Ordnance Depot (MOD), 1920 to 1968
  • Base Ordnance Depot (BOD), 1968 to 1979
  • 1st Base Supply Battachedalion (1BSB), 1979 to 1993
  • 5 Logistic Regiment (5LR), 1993 to 8 December 1996 when Transferred to the RNZALR.

Ordnance School

  • RNZAOC School, 1958 to 1994
  • Supply/Quartermaster Wing and Ammunition Wing, Trade Training School 1994 to 1996. [21]

Workshops

  • Main Ordnance Workshop, 1917 to 1946.[22]

Workshop Stores Section

  • 1 Base Workshop, Stores Section

Ordnance Field Parks

  • 4(NZ) Division Ordnance Field Park(OFP), 1950–1963

Vehicle Depot

  • Central Districts Vehicle Depot, 1948 – 1957

Ammunition Units

  • HQ Ammunition Group, sections at Belmont, Moko Moko, Kuku Valley, Waiouru
  • Ammunition Proof and Experimental Centre, Kuku Valley
  • Central Military District Ammunition Repair Depot, Kuku Valley

Waiouru

Ordnance Sub Depots were established at Waiouru in 1940, which eventually grew into a stand-alone Supply Company.[23]

RNZAOC units that have supported Waiouru have been;

Stores Depot

  • Main Ordnance Depot, Waiouru Sub-Depot, 1940–1946, Initially managed as a Sub-Depot of the Main Ordnance Depot in Trentham, Ordnance units in Waiouru consisted of:
    • Artillery Sub Depot
    • Bulk Stores Depot
    • Ammunition Section
  • Central Districts Ordnance Depot, Waiouru Sub Depot (1946–1976).[24] In 1946 Waiouru became a Sub-Depot of the Central Districts Ordnance Depot in Linton, consisting of:
    • Ammo Group
    • Vehicle Group
    • Camp Equipment Group.
  • 4 Central Ordnance Deport, (1976–1979) On 1 April 1976 became a stand-alone Depot in its own right. [25]
  • 4 Supply Company, (1979–1989)
    when the RNZASC was disbanded in 1979 and its supply functions transferred to the RNZAOC, 4 Supply gained the following RNZASC units:[26]

    • HQ 21 Supply Company,(TF element)(1979–1984)
      21 Supply Company was retained as a Territorial unit for training and exercise purposes and was capable of providing a Supply Company Headquarter capable of commanding up to five subunits.
    • 47 Petroleum Platoon (1979–1984)
    • 44 Supply Platoon
  • Central Q, (1989–1993)
  • 4 Field Supply Company, (1993–1994)
  • Distribution Company, 4 Logistic Regiment, (1994–1996)

Workshop Stores Section

  • Waiouru Workshop, Stores Section
  • 4 ATG Workshop, Stores Section
  • 1 Armoured Workshop, Store Section
  • QAMR Workshop, Store Section

Wellington

The Board of Ordnance originally had a warehouse in Manners Street, but after the 1850 earthquake severely damaged this building, 13 acres of Mount Cook was granted to the Board of Ordnance, starting a long Ordnance association with the Wellington area.

Stores Depot

  • Central Districts Ordnance Depot, Alexandra Military Depot, Mount Cook, 1907 to 1920.[27]
  • New Zealand Ordnance Section, Fort Ballance, Wellington, 1915 to 1917.[28]

 Workshops

  • Armament Workshop, Alexandra Military Depot.[29]

Unit locations overseas, 1914–1920

Few records trace with any accuracy New Zealand Ordnance units that served overseas in the First World War. Although the NZAOC was not officially created until 1917.[30] The New Zealand Army Ordnance Corps was constituted as part of the New Zealand Expeditionary Force (NZEF) in 1914 for overseas service only and in 1919 its members demobilised, returned to their parent units or mustered into the New Zealand Army Ordnance Department (Officers) or New Zealand Army Ordnance Corps (other Ranks) on their return to New Zealand.

Egypt

  • Ordnance Depot, Zeitoun Camp, 1914-16
  • Ordnance Depot Alexandra, 1915-16
    • 12 Rue de la, Porte Rosette, Alexandria. [31]
    • New Zealand Ordnance Store, Shed 43, Alexandria Docks.[32]
  • NZ Ordnance Section, NZEF Headquarters in Egypt
    • Qasr El Nil Barracks, Cairo.[33]

Fiji

  • NZAOC Detachment, Fiji Expeditionary Force, Suva – February- April 1920

Germany

  • Ordnance Depot, Mulheim, Cologne

 Greece

  • Ordnance Depot, Sapri Camp, Lemnos Island, October – December 1915

Samoa

  • 1 Base Depot

 Turkey

  • Ordnance Depot, ANZAC Cove, Gallipoli, April – Dec 1915

 United Kingdom

  • New Zealand Ordnance Base Depot Farringdon Street, London
  • Ordnance Depot, Cosford Camp

Unit locations overseas, 1939–1946

Egypt

Headquarters

  • Office of the DDOS 2NZEF, 22 Aig 1941 to Sept 1942
  • Office of the ADOS 2NZEF, Sept 1942 to 1 Sept 1945

Base Units

Supply

  • New Zealand Base Ordnance Depot, Maadi, 1940 to 19 Feb 1944
  • No 1 New Zealand Base Ordnance Depot,  16 Feb 1944 to 1946

Workshops (until Sept 1942 when transferred to NZEME)

  • NZ Base Ordnance Workshop

Laundry

  • NZ Base Laundry, 30 Sept 1942 – 30 Sept 1943

Training

  • Engineer and Ordnance Training Depot, Maadi Camp

Field Units

Supply

  • 2 NZ Divisional Ordnance Field Park, 28 Jul 1941 – 29 Dec 1945
  • NZ Divisional Mobile Bath Unit, 6 Sept 1941  –  30 Sept 1942
  • NZ Divisional Mobile Laundry & Decontamination Unit, 22 Sept 1941 – 27 Mar 1942
  • NZ Divisional Mobile Laundry, 27 Mar 1942 – 30 Sept 1942
  • NZ Salvage Unit, 16 Aug 1941 – 20 Oct 1942

Workshops (until Sept 1942 when transferred to NZEME)

  • 2 NZ Divisional Ordnance Workshops
  • 1 NZ Field Workshop
  • 2 NZ Field Workshop
  • 3 NZ Field Workshop
  • 14 NZ Anti-Aircraft Workshop Section
  • 9 NZ Light Aid Detachment (attached 4 Fd Regt)
  • 10 NZ LAD (attached 5 Fd Pk Coy)
  • 11 NZ LAD (attached HQ 4 NZ Inf Bde)
  • 12 NZ LAD (attached 27 NZ (MG) Bn) Disbanded 15 Oct 1942
  • 13 NZ LAD (attached 2 NZ Div Cav)
  • 14 NZ LAD (attached 2 NZ Div Sigs)
  • 15 NZ LAD (attached 7 NZ A Tk Regt)
  • 16 NZ LAD (attached HQ 5 Fd Regt)
  • 17 NZ LAD (attached HQ 5 NZ Inf Bde)
  • 18 NZ LAD (attached 6 NZ Fd Regt)
  • 19 NZ LAD (attached HQ 6 NZ Inf Bde)

Greece

  • 2 Independent (NZ) Brigade Group Workshop.[34]
  • 5 Independent (NZ) Brigade Group Workshop. [35]
  • Light Aid Detachments x 11
  • 1 Ordnance Field Park (British OFP attached to NZ Division).[36]

Italy

Headquarters

  • Office of the ADOS 2NZEF, 6 Jun 1945 to 1 Sept 1945

Base units

  • No 2 New Zealand Base Ordnance Depot, Bari, 16 Feb 1944 – 2 Feb 1946.[37]
    •  Advanced Section of Base Depot, Senegallia, Sept 44 – Feb 46.
  • NZ Advanced Ordnance Depot,   1943- 14 Feb 1944 (Absorbed into OFP)

Field units

  • NZ Division Ordnance Field Park OFP, – 29 Dec 1945
  • NZ Advanced Ordnance Depot, 27 Oct 1945- 1 Feb 1946
  • NZ Mobile Laundry Unit, 1 Oct 1943 – 16 Feb 1944
  • NZ Mobile Bath Unit, 18 Oct 1943 – 16 Feb 1944
  • MZ Mobile Laundry and Bath Unit, 16 Feb 1944 – 8 Dec 1945
  • NZ Vehicle and Stores Reception Depot, 27 Oct 1944 – 1 Feb 1946
    • Vehicle Depot, Assisi, 27 Oct 1945 – Jan 1946.[38]
    • Stores Depot, Perugia, 27 Oct 1945 – Feb 1946.[39]

Fiji

  • Divisional Ordnance Headquarters
  • Base Ordnance Depot
  • Division Ordnance Workshop
  • ‘A’ Workshop Section
  • ‘B Workshop Section
  • 20th Light Aid Detachment
  • 36th Light Aid Detachment
  • 37th Light Aid Detachment

New Caledonia

  • Base Ordnance Depot
  • Division Ordnance Workshop

Solomon Islands

  • Advanced Ordnance Depot, Guadalcanal. Officer Commanding and Chief Ordnance Officer, Captain Noel McCarthy.

Tonga

  • 16 Brigade Group Ordnance Field Park
  • 16 Brigade Group Workshop

Unit locations overseas, 1945–1996

Japan

  • Base Ordnance Depot, Kure (RAOC unit, NZAOC personnel attached)
  • 4 Forward Ordnance Depot, supporting NZ 9 Inf Brigade Group, later renamed 4 Advanced Ordnance Depot
  • 4 Advanced Ordnance Depot

Korea

No Standalone units but individual RNZAOC personnel served in 4 Ordnance Composite Depot (4 OCD) RAOC.

Malaya

No standalone RNZAOC units, but individual RNZAOC personnel may have served in the following British and Commonwealth Ordnance units:

  • 3 Base Ordnance Depot, RAOC, Singapore
  • 28 Commonwealth Brigade Ordnance Field Park, Terendak, Malaysia.

Singapore

Stores Depot

  • 5 Advanced Ordnance Depot, 1970–1971
    5 Advanced Ordnance Depot (5 AOD) was a short-lived Bi-National Ordnance Depot operated by the RAAOC and RNZAOC in Singapore, 1970 to 1971.
  • ANZUK Ordnance Depot, 1971–1974
    ANZUK Ordnance Depot was the Tri-National Ordnance Depot supporting the short-lived ANZUK Force. Staffed by service personnel from the RAOC, RAAOC and RNZAOC with locally Employed Civilians (LEC) performing the basic clerical, warehousing and driving tasks. It was part of the ANZUK Support Group supporting ANZUK Force in Singapore between 1971 to 1974. ANZUK Ordnance Depot was formed from the Australian/NZ 5 AOD and UK 3BOD and consisted of:

    • Stores Sub Depot
    • Vehicle Sub Depot
    • Ammunition Sub Depot
    • Barrack Services Unit
    • Forward Ordnance Depot(FOD)
  • New Zealand Advanced Ordnance Depot, 1974–1989
    From 1974 to 1989 the RNZAOC maintained the New Zealand Advanced Ordnance Depot(NZAOD) in Singapore as part of New Zealand Force South East Asia (NZFORSEA).

Workshops Stores Section

  • New Zealand Workshops, RNZAOC Stores Section
  • 1RNZIR, Light Aid Detachment Stores Section

Somalia

The RNZAOC (with RNZCT, RNZEME, RNZSig, RNZMC specialist attachments) contributed to the New Zealand Governments commitment to the International and United Nations Operation in Somalia(UNOSOM) efforts in Somalia with:

  • Supply Detachment, Dec 1992 to June 1993
  • Supply Platoon x 2 rotations, July 1993 to July 1994 (reinforced with RNZIR Infantry Section)
  • RNZAOC officers to UNOSOM headquarters, 1992 to 1995.[40]

South Vietnam

During New Zealand’s commitment to the war in South Vietnam (29 June 1964 – 21 December 1972). The Royal New Zealand Army Ordnance Corps did not contribute a standalone unit but provided individuals to serve in New Zealand Headquarters units, Composite Logistic units or as part of Australian Ordnance Units including:

  • Headquarters Vietnam Force (HQ V Force)
  • 1st Australian Task Force (1 ATF)
  • 1st Australian Logistic Support Group (1 ALSG)
  • 161 Battery Attachments (161 Bty Attached)
  • New Zealand Rifle Companies
  • 161st (Independent) Reconnaissance Flight

Copyright © Robert McKie 2018

Notes

[1] Whakapapa is a taxonomic framework that links all animate and inanimate, known and unknown phenomena in the terrestrial and spiritual worlds. Whakapapa, therefore, binds all things. It maps relationships so that mythology, legend, history, knowledge, Tikanga (custom), philosophies and spiritualities are organised, preserved and transmitted from one generation to the next. “Rāwiri Taonui, ‘Whakapapa – Genealogy – What Is Whakapapa?’, Te Ara – the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, Http://Www.Teara.Govt.Nz/En/Whakapapa-Genealogy/Page-1 (Accessed 3 June 2019).”

[2] Major J.S Bolton, A History of the Royal New Zealand Army Ordnance Corps (Trentham: RNZAOC, 1992).

[3] A.J. Polaschek and Medals Research Christchurch, The Complete New Zealand Distinguished Conduct Medal: Being an Account of the New Zealand Recipients of the Distinguished Conduct Medal from the Earliest Times of the South African War to the Present Time, Together with Brief Biographical Notes and Details of Their Entitlement to Other Medals, Orders and Decorations (Medals Research Christchurch, 1983).

[4] “Dismantling of Buildings at Mt Eden and Reassembling at Narrow Neck,” New Zealand Herald, vol. LXVI, p. 5, 2 February 1929.

[5] “The Narrow Neck Camp,” New Zealand Herald, vol. LVIII, no. 17815, p. 6, 23 June 1921.

[6] John J. Storey and J. Halket Millar, March Past: A Review of the First Fifty Years of Burnham Camp (Christchurch, N.Z.: Pegasus Press, 1973, 1974 printing, 1973), Non-fiction.

[7] “Camp at Burnham,” Star, no. 16298, p. 8, 13 December 1920.

[8] “RNZAOC Triennial Conference,” in Handbook – RNZAOC Triennial Conference, Wellington,”  (1981).

[9][9] “NZ P106 Dos Procedure Instructions, Part 1 Static Support Force. Annex F to Chapter 1, Rnzaoc Director of Ordnance Services,”  (1978).

[10] ” Featherston Military Training Camp and the First World War, 1915–27,”  https://nzhistory.govt.nz/war/featherston-camp.

[11] “NZ P106 Dos Procedure Instructions, Part 1 Static Support Force. Annex F to Chapter 1, Rnzaoc Director of Ordnance Services.”

[12] “Stockholding for Operationally Deployable Stockholding Units,” NZ Army General Staff, Wellington  (1993.).

[13] L Clifton, Aerodrome Services, ed. Aerodrome Services Branch of the Public Works Department War History (Wellington1947).

[14] “1 Comp Ord Coy,” Pataka Magazine, February 1979.

[15] “D-01 Public Works Statement by the Hon. J. G. Coates, Minister of Public Works,” Appendix to the Journals of the House of Representatives, 1 January,”  (1925).

[16] “Great Military Camp,” The Auckland Star, vol. LVI, no. 83, p. 5, 8 April 1925.

[17] “1st Field Supply Company Standing Operating Procedures, 1st Supply Company Training Wing, Dec “,  (1984).

[18] W.H. Cunningham and C.A.L. Treadwell, Wellington Regiment: N. Z. E. F 1914-1918 (Naval & Military Press, 2003).

[19] “Defence Re-Organisation,” Manawatu Times, vol. XLII, no. 1808, p. 5, 5 May  1921.

[20] “H-19 Defence Forces of New Zealand, Report of the General Officer Commanding the Forces from 25th June 1914 to 26th June, 1915.,” “, Appendix to the Journals of the House of Representatives  (1915).

[21] “NZ Army Ordnance Stores, ,”  https://manawatuheritage.pncc.govt.nz/item/c7681d2d-c440-4d58-81ad-227fc31efebf.

[22] “Pataka Magazine. RNZAOC, P. 52,,”  (1994).

[23] “Waiouru Camp  “, Ellesmere Guardian, vol. LXI, no. 90, p. 2, 12 November 1940

[24] Bolton, A History of the Royal New Zealand Army Ordnance Corps.

[25] Ibid.

[26] Ibid.

[27] “Ordnance Stores,” Evening Post, vol. c, no. 95, p. 8, 19 October 1920.

[28] “H-19 Defence Forces of New Zealand, Report of the General Officer Commanding the Forces from 25th June 1914 to 26th June 1915.”

“, Appendix to the Journals of the House of Representatives  (1915).

[29] “H-19 Defence Forces of New Zealand, Report of the General Officer Commanding the Forces, from 1st June 1916 to 31st May 1917,” Appendix to the Journals of the House of Representatives  (1917).

[30] “Colonel Rhodes,” Dominion, vol. 9, no. 2718, p. 9, 13 March 1916. .

[31] Ibid.

[32] Ibid.

[33] Glyn Harper, Johnny Enzed: The New Zealand Soldier in the First World War 1914-1918, First World War Centenary History (Titirangi, Auckland, New Zealand: Exisle Publishing, 2015

[Limited Leather Bound Edition], 2015), Bibliographies, Non-fiction.

[34] A.H. Fernyhough, History of the Royal Army Ordnance Corps 1920-1945 (Royal Army Ordnance Corps, 1958).

[35] Ibid.

[36] Ibid.

[37] New Zealand War Histories – Italy Volume Ii : From Cassino to Trieste,  (Victoria University of Wellington, 1967).

[38] Ibid.

[39] Ibid.

[40] “Somalia: 1992 – 1995,” NZ Army,” http://www.army.mil.nz/about-us/what-we-do/deployments/previous-deployments/somalia/default.htm.


The Historiography of the New Zealand Wars and the Military Store Department

The study of the New Zealand Wars has created an extensive Historiography focused on the political and warfighting aspects of the campaign, providing much information on the causes, effects, commanders, battles and units that participated in the New Zealand Wars. If the narrative has chosen to include the logistic services, the general Historiography has been biased towards the larger of the Logistic Services- the Commissariat – while neglecting to cover the contribution of the Military Store Department. This essay will examine the Historiography of the New Zealand Wars as it relates to the logistics and the activities of the Military Store Department from 1857 to 1870.

The Military Store Department was the department of the British Army responsible for providing weapons, munitions and military equipment to the British Army and Colonial Forces from 1857 to 1870.[1]  The origins of the Military Store Department lie with the Board of Ordnance, which under the Master General of the Ordnance existed between 1597 and 1855. The Crimean War (16 October 1853 – 30 March 1856) had seen the British Army suffer many privations due to the failure of its Logistic Services, including the Ordnance Board, which saw their functions placed under the supervision of the War Office while reformation of the British Army’s administrative system took place.[2] By 1857 the reforms had resulted  in the formation of specialised departments to manage the British Army’s logistics:[3]

  • The Commissariat, responsible for land transport services and the provision of food and fuel for soldiers and forage for animals;
  • The Purveyors Department, responsible for the setting up, equipping and the maintenance of hospitals and;
  • The Military Store Department, responsible for Weapons, Munitions and Military equipment not managed by the other departments.[4]

The Ordnance Board had existed in New Zealand since the 1840s, in 1857 its staff and infrastructure were amalgamated into the Military Store Department and would support the Imperial Forces for the duration of the conflict.[5]

Much of the Historiography about the New Zealand War Logistics is related to General Cameron and his staff and how they had learnt the lessons of the Crimean War and were determined not to make the same mistakes. Matthew Wright describes Cameron as a veteran General, “with a reputation for, discipline, ‘reticent and auster’ who understood Logistics.[6]  James Belich agrees with Wright on Cameron’s Logistical appreciation and expands on the logistical challenges that the Imperial Forces faced, such as the length of the Supply Chain and the reliance on imports from England and Australia.[7] Wright and Belich do not delve deeply into the organisational structures of the Imperial Forces, so the omission of the Military Store Department is to be expected.

The Military Store Department is noticeably missing from Tim Ryan and Bill Parham’s book on the New Zealand Wars, which furnishes a full chapter on the British Regiments and Corps involved in the New Zealand Wars from 1845 to 1870. Despite detailing all the Imperial Units, including the Medical and Commissariate units, Ryan and Parham neglect to mention the Military Store Department.[8]  Richard Taylor’s 2004 thesis, ‘British Logistics in the New Zealand Wars, 1845-66’ provides a comprehensive review of British Logistics during the New Zealand Wars. Taylor does mention in brief, the activities of the Board of Ordnance in the 1840s and 50s, but provides no mention of their successor, the Military Store Department. Focused on the Medical, Commissariat, and Transports Corps, Taylor’s work provides little understanding of mechanisms responsible for the supply of arms, munitions and other military stores.

Adam Davis, in his 2004 thesis, ‘The Imperial Garrison in New Zealand, 1840-1870 with Particular Reference to Auckland’, examines the social interactions between the Imperial Forces and New Zealand Colonial Society. Drawing on many primary sources such as newspapers, Davis examines the activities of the Board of Ordnance before 1857 and then the Military Store Department post-1857. Davis states how the Military Store Department was existing in 1861 and includes it in a list detailing the distribution of Imperial units in 1864.[9]  Davis also mentions several times in his text that the Military Store Department was also the primary occupant of Britomart Barracks.

The lack of the Military Store Department in the historiography of the New Zealand Wars it not surprising. The Regimental history of the Royal New Zealand Corps of Transport (RNZCT) records the history of the Commissariat and Transports Corps.[10] The Successors to the Military Store Department, the Royal New Zealand Army Ordnance Corps(RNZAOC), discusses the New Zealand Wars in their regimental history but makes no mention if the Military Store Department.[11] The History of the British Royal Army Ordnance  Corps (RAOC) makes no specific mention of the New Zealand Wars, but does describe how department officers would be attached to flying columns and clerks, artificers and labourers would be provided to accompany the force.[12] This description of responsibilities is supported by news articles relating to the Military Store Department found in the Papers Past Website. A 2018 article in the New Zealand Military History Society of New Zealand Journal, the Volunteers: ‘Ordnance Services in Colonial New Zealand 1840 to 1871’ weaves together a variety of primary and secondary sources outlaying the history of the Military Store Department in New Zealand and identifies many of its essential personnel and locations that it occupied.[13]

It is surprising that the Military Store Department does not have a broader profile in the Historiography of the New Zealand Wars. Given its responsibility for the provision and maintenance of weapons, munitions and military equipment, it was a key enabler for the maintenance of the Imperial and Colonial Forces in the field. There are many examples in the media of the day of the high esteem in which the Miliatry Store Department was held. At the Colonial level, Chapman’s New Zealand Almanac of 1860 lists the Military Store Department and its Staff as part of the Imperial Military Hierarchy,[14] whereas similarly the Royal Kalanders issued between 1860 and 1862 provide listings of the Military Store Department Officers. Hart’s Army list also provides a wealth of information on the officers of the Military Store Department. Hart’s Army list was produced annually and provided detailed information on each officer of the British Army including the Military Stores Department. [16] The notes contained in the Army list also provide biographical details which add to the Historiography of the New Zeland Wars, for example, the Army List of 1869 shows the following:[17]

  • Mr Hamley served in New Zealand from 1846 including two Native Wars;
  • Mr Haldane served during the late war in New Zealand;
  • Mr Le Geyt served in the New Zealand War of 1863-66 and was present at the attack of the Orakau Pah, assault and capture of the Gate Pa, and action at Te Ranga;
  • T. Timbrell and James White served in the New Zealand War in 1864-06.

The Historiography provided by these primary sources contrasts with the database held on the Soldiers of Empire Website.[18]  The Soldiers of Empire website contributes a digital element to the Historiography of the New Zealand Wars. With a database of Imperial troops who served in New Zealand and several interactive articles detailing different aspects of the conflict. At this stage, despite being a gazetted unit of the British Military,[19] the Military Store Department has not been included on the Soldiers of Empire database. While continuing the trend of not including the Military Store Department, the Soldiers of Empire Website includes in its articles many of the watercolours painted by Joseph Osbertus Hamley who in his duties as Head of the Military Store Department took part in many of the Imperial Military Operations.[20] Moreover, Hamley would also be the last Imperial officer to depart New Zealand in 1870.[21]

The absence of the Military Store Department from much of the Historiography is an enigma, and can be attributed to its small size, and also the successful conduct of its duties with little or no fuss. Davis stated that in 1864 the department consisted of four staff and ten sergeants,[22] collaborated by the list of the Department collated by Mckie.[23]  Given its small numbers, the Military Store Department seldom operated independently outside of Auckland, and the men of the department for administrative and tactical reasons were often attached to the strength of the Commissariat while in the field and hence appeared in many records as part of the Commissariat,[24] which has helped to keep the department out of the historiography. Despite the size of the department and the vagueness of its existence in the historiography, in the 1860s the work of the department was well known and appeared regularly in the media of the time. An 1864 article in the New Zealand Spectator and Cook’s Strait Guardian describes in detail the duties and organisation of the department, and also the praise it had received from General Cameron for its contribution to the war.[25]

In conclusion, the Historiography of the New Zealand Wars is in a state of continual evolution and although the narrative has generally remained  focused on the causes, effects, commanders, battles and forces that participated in the New Zealand Wars, modern advances in archival management have opened up access to many records which have previously remained out of reach. Until recently the Military Store Department was not part of the New Zealand Wars Historiography, for some accounts, this is acceptable as such details do not add to the narrative. However, any New Zealand War history discussing details of Imperial and colonial units and the logistics required is only telling a portion of the history if they do not include the Military Store Department.  Despite there being a raft of primary sources providing positive information on the existence of the Military Store Department, the Department is a victim of its success and as such has become unknown. If it had made a few errors or failed to provide ammunition on time the historiography might be different.

Copyright © Robert McKie 2019

Notes:

[1] Arthur Forbes, A History of the Army Ordnance Services (London: The Medici society, ltd., 1929), 149.

[2] Many on the Officers and men who had served in the Crimean war, would also serve in the New Zealand Wars applying many of the tactical and Logistical lessons learnt to good effect.

[3] J.M. War office Bannatyne, Royal Warrants, Circular, General Orders and Memoranda, Issued by the War Office and Horse Guards, Aug. 1856- July 1864 (1864), 302-10.

[4] Brigadier A H Fernyhough, A Short History of the Royal Army Ordnance Corps (First Edition) (RAOC Trust 1965), 14-15.

[5] Robert McKie, “Ordnance Services in Colonial New Zealand 1840-1871,” The Volunteers: New Zealand Military Historical Society 44, no. 2 (2018): 42. , H.G Hart, “Annual Army List as at December 1857,”  https://digital.nls.uk/british-military-lists/archive/102696001.

[6] Matthew Wright, Two Peoples, One Land: The New Zealand Wars (Reed, 2006), Bibliographies, Non-fiction, 113.

[7]James Belich, The New Zealand Wars and the Victorian Interpretation of Racial Conflict, This edition 2015 ed. (Auckland University Press, 2015), Bibliographies, Non-fiction, 127.

[8] Tim Ryan and W. T. Parham, The Colonial New Zealand Wars, Rev. ed. (Grantham House, 2002), Bibliographies, Non-fiction, 159-64.

[9] Adam Davis, “The Imperial Garrison in New Zealand, 1840-1870 with Particular Reference to Auckland” (University of Bedfordshire, 2004), 79.

[10] Julia Millen, Salute to Service: A History of the Royal New Zealand Corps of Transport and Its Predecessors, 1860-1996 (Wellington: Victoria University Press, 1997, 1997), Bibliographies, Non-fiction, 15-30.

[11] Major J.S Bolton, A History of the Royal New Zealand Army Ordnance Corps (Trentham: RNZAOC, 1992), 44-49.

[12] Fernyhough, A Short History of the Royal Army Ordnance Corps (First Edition), 15.

[13] McKie, “Ordnance Services in Colonial New Zealand 1840-1871,” 36 – 53.

[14] Chapman’s New Zealand Almanac – New Zealand Official Directory,  (1860).

[15] The Royal Kalendar, and Court and City Register for England, Scotland, Ireland, and the Colonies,  (1860)., The Royal Kalendar, and Court and City Register for England, Scotland, Ireland, and the Colonies,  (1861)., The Royal Kalendar, and Court and City Register for England, Scotland, Ireland, and the Colonies,  (1862).

[16] Colonel H.G Hart, “Hart’s Army Lists – 1839-1915,” National Library of Scotland,, https://digital.nls.uk/british-military-lists/archive/100739612.

[17] H.G Hart, “Annual Army List as at  December 1868,”  https://digital.nls.uk/british-military-lists/archive/102696001.

[18] Victoria University of Wellington, “Soldiers of Empire,”  http://www.soldiersofempire.nz/database.html.

[19] “Commissions Granted to Officers Serving in the Military Store Department,” London Gazette No 22567, 19 November 1861.

[20] Una Platts, Nineteenth Century New Zealand Artists: A Guide & Handbook (Christchurch, N.Z.: Avon Fine Prints, 1980, 1980), Bibliographies, Non-fiction, Collective biography.

[21] “Projected Departure of Mr Hamley,” Daily Southern Cross, Volume XXVI, Issue 4007, 25 June 1870.

[22] Davis, “The Imperial Garrison in New Zealand, 1840-1870 with Particular Reference to Auckland.”

[23] McKie, “Ordnance Services in Colonial New Zealand 1840-1871.”

[24] Deputy Assistant Superintendent of Stores  A.R Tribe served in NZ from 1861 to 1866 and although confirmed as an officer in the Military Store Department in the London Gazette and Harts Army List is listed in the Soldier of Empire Database as belonging to the Military Train. soldiersofempire.nz, “Imperial Soldiers Serving in New Zealand Database: A.R Tribe Record Info,”  http://www.soldiersofempire.nz/database.html.

[25] “Fort Britomart,” New Zealand Spectator and Cook’s Strait Guardian, Volum XIX, Issue 1942, 12 March 1864.


K Force Ordnance

The New Zealand contribution of Kayforce has been written about often and the actions of 16 Field Regiment and 10 Transport Company which are rightly held in high esteem, have overshadowed the efforts and achievements of the minor Kayforce units including the small RNZAOC contribution.

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1st Commonwealth Division Patch. Wikipedia Commons

New Zealand contribution to the United Nations Forces in Korea was Kayforce.  A volunteer force raised explicitly for service in Korea, Kayforce was composed of 16 Field Regiment, RNZA with a Light Aid Detachment, a Signals troop, a Transport Platoon and many smaller ancillary units including an Ordnance Section.

Authorised in July 1950, and comprising 1056 men,  Kayforce was recruited from:

  • members of the Regular Force,
  • men with previous military experience from the Second World War and
  • men too young to have served during the last war, and had prior little military experience.

The Ordnance Section, comprising 1 officer and six men was commanded by Captain Geoffrey John Hayes Atkinson with three soldiers recruited directly into Kayforce, and three regular RNZAOC soldiers;

  • Lance Corporal Neville Wallace Beard,
  • Lance Corporal Bruce Jerome Berney,
  • Lance Corporal James Ivo Miller,
  • Private Keith Robert Meynell Gamble,
  • Private Thomas Allan (Tom) Hill.

Captain Atkinson, LCpl Beard and Private Hill had all previously served with Jayforce in Japan and would have experience of the systems used by the Commonwealth Ordnance Depot which would become invaluable shortly.

While the Force was  busy  training, the Staff at the Main Ordnance Depot at Trentham had been preparing Kayforce’s equipment against the G1098  (War Equipment Table) including:

  • 35 – 25 Pounder guns
  • 345 – Vehicles
  • 62 –  Gun trailers
  • Ammunition and stores to support initial operations

These were non-tactically loaded onto the charted freighter the SS Ganges which departed for Korea in late November with an advance party of 1 officer and 14 other ranks with Lance Corporal Berney representing the RNZAOC.

The main body, Including Lance Corporal Beard and Privates Gamble and Hill. left from Wellington on 10  Dec 1950 on the SS Ormonde. The remaining members of the advance party, Captian Atkinson and Lance Corporal Miller departed for Korea by RNZAF Dakota

The main body arrived at Pusan, Korea on New Year’s Eve,   the Ganges had arrived some days earlier and already discharged much of Kay Forces equipment onto the Pusan docks. HQ K Force and the advance party had wasted little time and acquired accommodation for the Headquarters in downtown Pusan, and had shelter for the main body prepared at an abandoned school on the outskirts of the city.

It was immediately to the task of unpacking the stores and preparing it all for action. A difficult task considering that the stores had been loaded on the Ganges non-tactically and consequently, locating and matching up equipment to subunits was a slow process. For example,  finding wireless sets and all their vital parts and then mounting them on vehicles was challenging because they had been packed into a number of cases which required tracking down from a myriad of packing cases unloaded onto the Pusan docks.  Guns had to have wax and grease protective coatings removed before they could be ready for action, add to his the sub-zero temperatures of a Korean winter in clothing designed for temperate New Zealand, it was a challenging task, which with no doubt a good deal of kiwi ingenuity, was accomplished in good time.

16 Field Regiment joined the  27th British Commonwealth Infantry Brigade on 21 January 1951, and four days later was in action for the first time.

Commonwealth Ordnance Support in Korea

The Commonwealth Forces were fortunate to have the  British Commonwealth Occupation Forces (BCOF) Base Ordnance Depot (BOD) at Kure in Japan from which Ordnance Support could be coordinated. In the Process of winding down, the BCOF had shrunk from a strength of over 20000 to less than 2000 and the BOD had shrunk from a combined RAOC, RNZAOC, RIAOC, RAAOC Depot to a single RAAOC depot. The war in Korea gave it a further lease of life, and it provided sterling service in the early years of the war.

National Items such as uniforms would be supplied from contributing counties, items such as Arms and Ammunition were provided from 3 BOD in Singapore and the UK on a 4 monthly automatic resupply.

The following is a snapshot of Ordnance Support in Korea consisted of;

  • Base Ordnance Depot, RAOC (Pusan),
  • 27th British Commonwealth Infantry Brigade Ordnance Field Park,
  • 28th British Commonwealth Infantry Brigade Ordnance Field Park,
  • 29th Independent Infantry Brigade Ordnance Field Park,
  • RAAOC Forward Ordnance Laundry (Seoul),
  • RAAOC Base laundry Detachment (Pusan),
  • RAAOC Salvage Depot (Pusan),
  • 4 Ordnance Composite Depot (4 OCD) RAOC,
  • 4 Advanced Ordnance Depot, RAOC,
  • NZ Base Ordnance Section, RNZAOC.

4 OCD was an ad-hoc unit made up with RAOC elements from COD Didcot and CAD Bramley in the UK and was scaled to support the 29 Brigade OFP with 14 Officers and 327 Soldiers, of whom 45% were reservists with some skill fade. Organised into three Sub Depots and an ASD.  4 OCD had been at Taegu in Korea since 20 November 1950, but the Chinese advances had prompted its evacuation to Pusan in January 1951. With some elements later evacuated to Kure in February, leaving elements such as port handling at Pusan and the Ammunition Section at Haeundae.  27 Brigade (later to become 28th Commonwealth Infantry Brigade)was added to its dependency, followed by the entire 1st Commonwealth Division in mid-1951.

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Showering in Korea, May 1952. Alexander Turnbull Library

With the business of outfitting 16 Field Regiment completed, it was down to routine business for Captain Atkinson and his Ordnance Section. Too small to be an independent unit, the Ordnance Section staff and stocks were absorbed into the British 4 Ordnance Composite Depot RAOC.

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K Force Ordnance Section, Pusan, Korea. Colonel Atkinson/Public Domain

The New Zealand Ordnance Section was a welcome addition to 4 OCD, The British were stretched, they were still suffering from the immediate post-WW2 Defence cuts and now were now not only fighting the Chinese in Korea but also fighting a communist insurgency in Malaya. This was placing huge demands on the RAOC organisation and infrastructure. Captain Atkinson was initially placed in command of one of 4 OCD stores sub depots as well as being appointed the Pusan Port Officer for the Commonwealth Forces. Eventually, Captain Atkinson was then appointed second in command and then Officer Commanding of 4 OCD.

The New Zealand Other Ranks were employed throughout 4 OCD, Some were employed at the Ammunition Section at Haeundae, which initially held 60 days of supply of 25 Pounder Ammunition, this was later increased to 90 days. Some of the New Zealand Ordnance personnel were employed across Korea from the Forward Ordnance units at Inchon and Seoul and also at the BOD in Kure, Japan.

On the 10th of February 1951, sparks from a shunting engine in the rail yards adjacent to the 4 OCD location caused a fire which engulfed several tents. Unfortunately, these tents contained not only the ledgers for 4 OCD but also all the Ordnance records for Kayforce. The timing could not have been worse.  4 OCD had only just relocated from Taegu, during which the ledger cabinets had also been lost, losing all the previous month’s issue history.  4 OCD was also busy back-loading stock to Japan as a precaution if the Chinese broke through,  both Brigades were involved in heavy fighting against the Chinese and to complicate matters more, the 4 monthly automatic issues from Singapore had arrived in  Japan. Much stocktaking under trying conditions was required, but diligent work prevented any loss of support to dependencies.

1st Commonwealth Division

With the arrival of the Canadian 25th Canadian Infantry Brigade, in May 1951, the 27th British Commonwealth Infantry Brigade was redesignated as the 28th British Commonwealth Infantry Brigade, and with the 29th Independent Infantry Brigade, the 1st Commonwealth Division was formed in July 1951.

Under the Division Chief of Royal Army Ordnance Corps (CRAOC), Lt Col M.F McLean, the OFPs were divisionlised into a single unit. The Canadian static unit was added tot he establishment of the BOD in Japan.

In December 1951, with the peace treaty with Japan finalised, the decision was made to close the BCOF BOD in Japan, and transfer its responsibilities to 4 OCD at Pusan, which was then renamed 4 Commonwealth Ordnance Depot (4 COD).

Captain Atkinson was promoted to Major and appointed as Second in Command HQ CRAOC. Promoted to Lieutenant Colonel, Atkinson was then appointed the Commonwealth Division CRAOC. Awarded the MBE for his services in Korea, Lt Col Atkinson returned to New Zealand in 1953.

Records indicated that there was at least two or three rotations of Ordnance Officers and Other Ranks between 1950 and 1956, including;

  • Captain Geoffrey John Hayes Atkinson, 1950 to 1953,
  • Lance Corporal Neville Wallace Beard, 1950 to 1952,
  • Lance Corporal Bruce Jerome Berney, 1950 to 1954,
  • Lance Corporal James Ivo Miller, 1950 to 1952,
  • Private Keith Robert Meynell Gamble, 1950 to 1952,
  • Private Thomas Allan (Tom) Hill, 1950 to 1952,
  • Private Desmond Mervyn Kerslake, 1951 to 1953,
  • Corporal Leonard Ferner Holder, 1952 to 1953,
  • Lance Corporal Owen Fowell, 1952 to 1953,
  • Private Dennis Arthur Astwood, 1952 to 1953,
  • Corporal Wiremu Matenga, 1952 to 1954,
  • Warrant Officer Class Two Barry Stewart, 1952 to 1955,
  • Lance Corporal Thomas Joseph Fitzsimons, 1952 to 1954,
  • Private Gane Cornelius Hibberd, 1952 to 1953,
  • Staff Sergeant James Russell Don, 1952 to 1956,
  • Corporal Gordon Winstone East, 1952 to 1956,
  • Sergeant Harold Ernest Strange (Harry) Fry, 1952 to 1954,
  • Captian Patrick William Rennison, 1952 to 1954,
  • Lance Corporal Alexander George Dobbins, 1953 to 1954,
  • Private Richard John Smart, 1953 to 1954,
  • Private Ernest Randell, 1953 to 1956,
  • Private Abraham Barbara, 1953 to 1955,
  • Corporal Edward Tanguru, 1954 to 1955,
  • Gunner John Neil Campbell, 1954 to 1955,
  • Lieutenant John Barrie Glasson, 1954 to 1956.

 

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Corporal Harry Fry and Private Owen ‘Chook’ Fowell at the R&R centre, Tokyo, early 1953. O Fowell/Public Domain

With the Armistice in place, the 1st Commonwealth Division was deactivated in 1954 and reduced to a Commonwealth Brigade Group until 1956, when then, in turn, was replaced with a Commonwealth Contingent of battalion strength until its final withdrawal in 1957.

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Major G.J.H Atkinson, RNZAOC, Korea 1951. Colonel Atkinson/Public Domain

The New Zealand Ordnance Contribution was small.  Atkinson, who started as a Captain commanding 6 men in 1950, had by 1954  become a Lieutenant Colonel in charge of the entire Ordnance Services of the Commonwealth Division provides an excellent example of New Zealander’s punching above their weight on the international stage. 

Dress Embellishments

Members of the Ordnance Section wore the standard new Zealand khaki beret of the time, with the corps badge with a black diamond backing.

 

Initially, distinguishing patches were not worn. On the 1st Commonwealth Divisions formation, a patch of a blue shield with a Tudor crown and the words ‘Commonwealth’ in yellow was initially worn.  Following Queen Elizabeth II coronation, the crown was changed to the St Edwards crown.

Comm3

1st Commonwealth Division patch, 1st pattern with Kings crown © canadiansoldiers.com

Commonwealth Div_zpseaxnomie

1st Commonwealth Division patch, the 2nd pattern with King’s crown. Courtesy David M Kellock

 

SSI_of_the_1st_Commonwealth_Division.svg

1st Commonwealth Division Patch, 3rd pattern with Queens Crown. Wikipedia Commons

Although probably not worn by members of the New Zealand Ordnance Section, Troops not serving directly in the Commonwealth Division wore a version of the square Commonwealth Forces patch.

 

Copyright © Robert McKie 2017


NZAOC in the New Zealand Division – August 1916 to June 1918

The participation of the New Zealand Army Ordnance Corps (NZAOC) as part of the New Zealand Division on the Western Front during the First World War is one that remains mostly forgotten. Under the supervision of the Deputy Assistant Director of Ordnance Services (DADOS) the NZAOC would grow from an initial staff of two men and a horse in 1914, too, by the standards of the day an effective Ordnance organisation of several Officers, Conductors and Soldiers providing Ordnance services on par to their counterparts in the British and other Commonwealth Divisions. This article, through the war diaries of the DADOS Branch of the NZ Division, takes a snapshot view of the activities of the NZAOC between August 1916 to June 1918.

The DADOS was an Ordnance officer attached to the Headquarters of each Division of the British and Dominion Armies during the 1914-18 war and was typically a Lieutenant Colonel or Major of the Army Ordnance Corps.[1]  The DADOS branch of the New Zealand Division Headquarters was constituted on the reorganisation of the New Zealand Division in Egypt in early 1916. From January 1916 to May 1919 the position of NZ Division DADOS would be held by two officers;

  • Lieutenant-Colonel Alfred Henry Herbert, NZAOC, Jan 1916 to March 1918.
  • Temporary Captain (Later Major) Charles Ingram Gossage, NZAOC, March 1918 to May 1919.
Herbert

Lieutenant-Colonel Alfred Henry Herbert, NZAOC. Auckland museum/Public Domain

Temporary Major Charles Ingram Gossage

9/39 Temporary Major Charles Ingram Gossage OBE. National Library of New Zealand/public domain

By 1918 the DADOS Branch, also referred to as the NZAOC or NZ Ordnance Department would consist of Officers, Warrant Officers (Conductors and Sub Conductors) and Non Commissioned Offices and Soldiers working as Clerks, Storemen and Armourers.

The role of the DADOS and his Staff[2] was to deal with all matters affecting the Ordnance services of the division. The DADOS would manage the state of the clothing and equipment on the charge of the units composing the division and would from time to time advise the officers in charge of the stores which in all probability would be required for operations.[3]

Ord Manual 1914

It was the duty of the DADOS to bring to notice of the General Officer Commanding (GOC) of the Division any extravagance and waste of Ordnance Stores undertaken by units of the Division. To enable him to judge whether stores were receiving fair treatment it was essential that the DADOS and his staff were fully conversant with the general condition of the equipment in possession of the troops, and the justifications for indents for replacement of additional stores. In the New Zealand Division, the DADOS Staff consisted of men who had obtained experience in Ordnance duties early in the war at Samoa, Gallipoli, or in the New Zealand Ordnance Depots at Alexandria and Zeitoun Camp.

The DADOS and his staff would arrange for the disposal of unserviceable ordnance stores in possession of units. Unserviceable stores would be sent to the nearest ordnance depot for repair, if transport, time and the condition of the articles justified it; otherwise, the DADOS would authorise their destruction or if not likely to be of any value to the enemy, abandoned.

After engagements, the DADOS branch would superintend the Divisional Salvage Company and medical units with the collecting and disposing of arms, equipment, ammunition, accoutrements and personal kit of the killed and wounded, or if a unit was advancing, the collection of material left behind as units advanced.

In conjunction with the Medical services, the DADOS branch would also oversee the establishment and operation of Divisional and Brigade Bathhouses and Laundries and provide management for the stocks of clothing for exchange and laundering.

The New Zealand Division was at the end of a very comprehensive Ordnance network that extended from Base Depots in England to Ordnance Depots and Workshops at Calais (Supporting the 1st, 2nd and 3rd Armies and units of the Northern Lines of Communication) and Le Harve (Supporting the 4th and 5th Armies and units of the Southern Lines of Communication).[4] Despite the Ordnance support available to the New Zealand Division the DADOS branch would also establish its own Ordnance Depots and Dumps to manage the vast quantities of equipment coming and going from the NZ Divisions Area of Operation before and after certain operations and for events such as the changeover from summer to winter clothing scales.

Given the nature of trench warfare, when units were in the line, there was little work for the specialist tradesmen in their ranks to do. As a measure of economy and to some degree self-reliance towards the maintenance of items most important to the soldier on the line, his weapon and his boots, Armourers and bootmakers were brigaded into Divisional Armourers and Boot repair shops. Under the supervision of the DADOS Branch but not officially part of the Division establishment these Divisional workshops ensured substantial savings in transporting goods for repair between the front and the rear. [5]

NZ Division NZAOC Personnel

No complete nominal roll of NZAOC personnel who served in the New Zealand Division exists, and the nominal roll and monthly records which have been added into the monthly War Diary’s on the promotions and movements of NZAOC personnel from August 1916 to June 1918 have been created using the individual’s personnel records.

NZAOC Nominal roll Start of August 1916

  • 11/1079 Lieutenant-Colonel Alfred Henry Herbert (DADOS)
  • 7/463 2nd Lieutenant Kenneth Bruce MacRae (Officer Commanding Divisional Salvage Company)
  • 9/39 Warrant Officer Class One (Conductor) Charles Ingram Gossage
  • 12/1025 Acting Warrant Officer Class One (Acting Sub-Conductor) William Hall Densby Coltman
  • 23/659 Regimental Quartermaster Sergeant William Henchcliffe Simmons
  • 12/736 Sergeant John Francis Goulding
  • 23/1457 Sergeant Percy Clarence O’Hara
  • 26/1155a Armourer Sergeant Charles Alfred Oldbury
  • 6/1147 Armourer Sergeant Walter Gus Smiley
  • 10/2484 Corporal Harold Gordon Hill
  • 10/1631 Corporal John Joseph Roberts
  • 11/337 Trooper William Alexander Mason
  • 8/584 Private Frank Percy Hutton
  • 6/3459 Private Clarence Adrian Seay
  • 12/944 Private Albert John Walton

 

DADOS NZ DIVISION – WAR DIARIES AUGUST 1916 TO JUNE 1918

Aug 1916 cover

As with any British or Dominion units, the DADOS branch was required to maintain a diary in which all matters connected with the DADOS branch was concisely but clearly recorded. Providing a daily account of the activities of the DADOS branch, many of the entries give the locations of the DADOS branch and a brief description of the key for each day. Many of the entries are listed merely as” Ordinary Routine” with others providing a more detailed account of the branch’s activities.

The following transcripts of the DADOS Diaries have been copied from the original handwritten diaries. Much of the original wording has been retained, but to improve readability, most abbreviated words and phrase have ween include in full. Place names have been checked against other NZ Division Histories, and in some occurrences, the modern place name has been used.

To provide a measure of context to operations driving the work of the DADOS Branch, operational overviews have been included for;

  • August 1916, the Somme,
  • June 1917, the Battle of Messines
  • October 1917, Passchendaele
  • March 1918, German Somme Offensive

Operational Overview August 1916

During August the NZ Division would go into action on the Somme. On 15 September 1916, The New Zealand Division would take part in its first significant action near Flers during the Somme offensive (July-November 1916). Over the next 23 days, the division suffers 7000 casualties, including more than 1500 killed.

DADOS NZ DIVISION – WAR DAIRY, AUGUST 1916

Location: Armentières

1 – 11 August – Ordinary routine

12 August – First Issue of Lewis Machine gun carts to the Division. 72 received

13 August – Ordinary routine

  • 12/944 Private Albert John Walton admitted to No 8 Casualty Clearing Station before evacuation to England

14 August – Moved to Renescure

Location: Renescure

15 – 17 August – Ordinary routine

  • 12/736 Sergeant John Francis Goulding appointed temporary CSM

18 August – On the eve of move, Ordinary routine

19 August – A good deal of inconvenience was caused to this Department owing to units failing to manage their stores, and these had to be returned to Base.

20 August – Personnel proceeded by rail to Army Corps Abbeville and then by road to Hallencourt

Location Hallencourt

21 – 24 August – It has been found that the handing over of the trench mortar batteries to 51st Division has not been satisfactory from our point of view. Practically new Stokes guns were given in exchange for others which had been subjected to a good deal hard work and were not in a satisfactory condition 13 having to be sent to the IOM 10 Corps for overhaul and repair and further that no spare parts were handed to this Division. These have been demanded from the base and issued. A few were also sent forward from the 51st Division and have been received. 51 Trench carts were handed over, and none received in exchange, and it is found that none are available in this area.

25 – 31 August – Ordinary routine

27 August – 2/115 Staff Sergeant Fitter Donald Clyde Inglis brought on to the strength of NZ Division DADOS and promoted to Quartermaster Sergeant Fitter

 

DADOS NZ DIVISION – WAR DAIRY, SEPTEMBER 1916

Location: Hallencourt

1 – 2 September – Ordinary Routine duties

3 September – Moved from Hallencourt to Belloy Sur Somme

Location: Belloy Sur Somme

4 – 6 September – Ordinary routine

7 September – Move from Belloy Sur Somme to Allonville

Location: Allonville

8 September – Move from Allonville to Sailly-Sur-la-Lys

Location: Sailly-sur-la-Lys

9 – 27 September – Ordinary routine

25 September 1916 –

  • 10/2484 Corporal Harold Gordon Hill promoted to Sergeant
  • 6/3459 Private Clarence Adrian Seay promoted to Temporary Sergeant

28 September – During the last fortnight, a great deal of wast has taken place owing to the lack of facilities for the washing of serviceable underclothing which has become dirty and wet and which the men are unable to wash. If laundry was run in conjunction with the Corps Baths where dirty laundry could be handed in and issued clean clothing in lieu a significant saving could be affected, and it would be conducive to the comfort and health of the troops.

29 September – Ordinary routine

30 September – Endeavoured to make arrangements at Corps Baths to exchange clean underclothing for dirty but was unsuccessful.

 

DADOS NZ DIVISION – WAR DAIRY, OCTOBER 1916

Location: Sailly-sur-la-Lys

1 October 1916 – 12/736 Sergeant John Francis Goulding appointed as Acting Company Sergeant Major

1 – 5 October – Ordinary routine

3 October – 11/42 Armourer Sergeant Percy William Charles Dement Transferred into NZAOC ex Otago Regt

6 October – Left Sailly-sur-la-Lys for Hallencourt, Divisional Artillery remained behind and attached to 12th Division for Ordnance purposes. A Warrant Officer, a Sergeant and a Storeman of the NZAOC left with the Divisional Artillery.

Location: Hallencourt

7 October – Ordinary routine. A Warrant Officer and Storeman sent to 2nd Army Area

8 October – Kits and Blankets stored in “École libre” issued today. Difficulties in delivery owing to the inability of units to provide transport. The four motor lorries attached to Ordnance conveyed the kits etc. to the different Brigade Headquarters.

9 October – Ordinary routine

10 October – Left Hallencourt and entrained at Pont-Remy

Location: Merris

11 October – Arrived at Merris

Location: Bac-Saint-Maur

12 October – Arrived this morning at Bac-Saint-Maur. Taking over from 5th Australian Division. 5th Divisional Artillery AIF is attached. The 5th Australian Divisional Ordnance left a WO to administrate them.

13 – 14 October – Ordinary routine

15 October – Indents forwarded to Base for winter clothing

16 – 20 October – Ordinary routine

17 October  – 9/1191 Corporal (Armourer) Percival James Lester Transferred into the NZAOC

21 October – Winter clothing arrived and issued to units

22 – 31 October – Ordinary routine

DADOS NZ DIVISION – WAR DAIRY, NOVEMBER 1916

Location: Bac-Saint-Maur

1 – 7 November – Ordinary routine

8 November – NZ Divisional Artillery re-joined the Division, the 5th Australian Divisional Artillery transferred to their Division

9 – 10 November – Ordinary routine

11 November – Divisional Artillery arrive minus a large amount of personal and other equipment, that was lost on the Somme front. Winter clothing now been issued to them.

13 November  – 11/1079 Lieutenant-Colonel Alfred Henry Herbert Mentioned in Dispatches

12 – 23 November – Ordinary routine

22 November – 11/337 Trooper William Alexander Mason promoted to Armourer Sergeant

24 November – Winter Clothing issues

25 November – Rubber sponge anti-gas goggles (rubber sponge) issued, also the repair outfits and record book for the box respirators.

26 November – Reinforcements are arriving from the base without blankets much inconvenience is caused as a result of this.  Blankets are not available for them at this end until two or three days later.

27 – 29 November – Ordinary routine

30 November – Issue of two more Lewis Guns per Battalion, bringing the total on charge at present to Battalions to 10

DADOS NZ DIVISION – WAR DAIRY, DECEMBER 1916

Location: Bac-Saint-Maur

1 December  – 8/584 Private Frank Percy Hutton promoted to Sergeant

1 – 4 December – Ordinary routine

5 December – A comparative statement showing the issues of all bulk items for December sent to units.

7 – 30 December – Ordinary routine

13 December -7/463 2nd Lieutenant Kenneth Bruce MacRae evacuated from Divisional area due to injury and struck off strength

31 December – The total bulk issued for the quantities 28 Sept/28 Dec show a large increase. This is accounted for by the large loss of equipment at the Somme having to be replaced.

DADOS NZ DIVISION – WAR DAIRY, JANUARY 1917

Location: Bac-Saint-Maur

1 January – A new system of bulk issues implemented. The Division securing 4 trucks a week instead of seven. The days for submitting demands being altered

2 – 5 January – Ordinary routine

6 January – Received the first issue of bulk stores under an amended timetable. A full truckload has been received.

7 – 9 January – Ordinary routine

10 January – Received 2000 Capes Waterproof from Ordnance Officer Corps Troops

11 – 12 January – Ordinary routine

13 January – Received 24 Lewis Machine Guns, been 2 per Infantry Battalion bringing number now issued to 12.

14 January – Ordinary routine

15 January – 512 boxes carrying for carrying Lewis MG magazines received and issued 40 per Battalion and 32 to Pioneer Battalion. Each box holds 8 magazines in canvas carrier.

16 – 19 January – Ordinary routine

20 January – The Artillery undergoing reorganisation, The new organisation being 2 Brigades each consisting of 3 Batteries 18pdr, each 6 guns and 1 Battery 4.5 Howitzer of 6 guns. The second Brigade forming Army Field Artillery Brigade. The DAC being made up of A and B Echelon. No 1 and 2 sections forming A Echelon, No 4 B Echelon, No 3 Section becomes the Brigade Ammunition Column.

A shortage of Size 8 boots ankle Received 80 in response for 498 pairs.

21 January – The 4th Brigade Artillery returned stores surplus on reorganisation. It is found that a large quantity have not been returned as directed and action has been taken to have this done.

22 – 23 January – Ordinary routine

24 January – Dubbing in short supply. None been received in response to a demand for 424lbs.

  • 23/659 Regimental Quartermaster Sergeant William Henchcliffe Simmons promote to Warrant Officer Class One (Conductor), vice Gossage
  • 9/39 Warrant Officer Class One (Conductor) Charles Ingram Gossage promoted to Second Lieutenant to complete establishment

25 January – Leather for repair of boots in very short supply. Only 10 Bends received out of total demand for 72.[6]

26 – 31 January – Ordinary routine

 

DADOS NZ DIVISION – WAR DAIRY, FEBRUARY 1917

Location: Bac-Saint-Maur

1 – 3 February – Ordinary routine

4 February – Sent out to OC units a monthly statement showing the bulk issues to his unit. The issues of boots has been above the average owing to a scarcity of leather sole bends during the past month.

5 – 10 February – Ordinary routine

6 February –  2/115 Quartermaster Sergeant Fitter Donald Clyde Inglis marched out of NZ Division to attend Officer Cadet Training unit prior to taking up a commission in the Royal Flying Corps.

11 February – Received Ordnance QF 18pdr No2951 for 13th Battery in replacement of gun no 5028 condemned by IOM.

12 February – Received 5 wooden boxes as a sample for carriage of stores forward.

13 February – Ordinary routine

14 February – Short supply of nib hay. 500 been received in response to a demand for 759. No Tins Mess W.S received 806 demanded.

15 February – DADOS 57th Division sent a representative for instruction before taking over

16 – 17 February – Ordinary routine

18 February – 10 leather bends received in response to demand for 80. Owing to the supply not being available demands for new boots are very high.

19 – 20 February – 24 Lewis Machine Guns received and issued at the rate of two per Battalion. This makes the total per Battalion 14.

22 – 23 February – Ordinary routine

24 February – 11 Wagons limbered GS harnessed received to compete Infantry Battalions to establishment. Handed over our stores to DADOS 57th Division, obtained a receipt in duplicated one of which was forwarded to Q.

25 February – Moved to new dump at B1 D2 .8 (De Seule) and took over trench stores from DADOS 25th Division. This included 300 pairs of Gum Boots, 9 hot food containers etc. 9 Intrenching Battalion, 196 Land Drainage Company, 171 Tunnelling Company and 2nd Platoon Park attached for administration.

Location: De Seule

26 – 27 February – Ordinary routine.

28 February – Received 100 tents from base but no bottoms were available.

DADOS NZ DIVISION – WAR DAIRY, MARCH 1917

Location: De Seule

1 March – Ordinary routine – Shortage of size 8 boots ankle, demanded 309, received 50 leather sole bends.

2 – 3 March – Ordinary routine.

4 March – Sent out to OC units a monthly statement of bulk issues.

5 – 8 March – Ordinary routine.

9 March – Ordinary routine. Shortage of size 8 boots ankle – demanded 738 received 50.

10 March – Ordinary routine. Shortage in Clothing SD.

11 March – Ordinary routine.

12 March – Ordinary routine Received 540 Lamps FS from Base.

13 – 15 March – Ordinary routine.

16 March – Ordinary routine – Shortage in leather bends, hobnails and rivets.

17 – 20 March – Ordinary routine.

21 March – Ordinary routine, Soda short supply, mineral oil and brooms bass no supply.

22 March – Ordinary routine.

23 March – Ordinary routine, Soles half filled received in lieu of leather bends.

24 – 28 March – Ordinary routine.

28 March –

  • 12/736 Sergeant John Francis Goulding promoted to Second Lieutenant and transferred for duty from Div HQ to 4th NZ Rifle Brigade
  • 12/1025 Company Sergeant Major (Acting Sub-Conductor) William Hall Densby Coltman promoted to Second Lieutenant and Transferred to 3rd Battalion the Wellington Regiment as Quartermaster.

29 March – Ordinary routine, Shortages in Soda and Soap Yellow bars, no Brooms Bass, Rugs Horse or Oil Mineral received from Base.

30 March – 24 Lewis Machine Guns received, issued 2 per Battalion – This makes the total in Battalion 16 – full complement as per A1098. Leather sole full supply made.

31 March – Ordinary routine

 

DADOS NZ DIVISION – WAR DAIRY,
APRIL 1917

Location: De Seule

1 April – Advice received from IOM  2nd ANZAC that Ordnance OF 18pdr no 1892 on charge to 12th Battery, NZFA was provisionally condemned on account of scouring, new piece was demanded by telegram.

2 April – Ordinary routine.

3 April – Received Ordnance QF 18pdr No 2472 Carriage No 42057 on charge to 7th Battery NZFA, without BM, with sight mounting for dial sight plus carrier.

4 – 5 April – Ordinary routine.

6 April – 107 Pistols received for Machine Gun Corps being last supply of 405 demanded as a first supply to complete establishment.

7 April – Ordinary routine.

8 April – Ordnance QF 18pdr No 6272 without BM received on charge 17th Battery.

9 April – Ordinary routine.

  • 11/1079 Lieutenant-Colonel Alfred Henry Herbert Mentioned in Dispatches

10 April – Demanded 3 Lewis Machine Guns for 1st Canterbury Infantry Battalion to replace others out of action for want of bolts, generally worn and depilated parts.

11 April – No soft soap, soap yellow bars or soda received from base. The shortage of these stores makes the running expenses of the Divisional Bath heavy as local purchase are enhanced prices must be resorted to if the baths are to carry on.

Sergeant O’Hara who had been attached to the Headquarters of the 3rd NZ Rifle Brigade  O’Hara passed away due to the effects of Broncho-Pneumonia at 8.25am on the morning of 11 April 1917. O’Hara had been admitted into No 2 New Zealand Field Ambulance on 4 April and  Transferred to No 2 Casualty Clearing Station on the 8th of April.

12 April – Ordinary routine

13 April – Received from base Lewis Machine Guns demanded 10th inst. On charge to 1st Canterbury Infantry Battalion. Demanded 1 Lewis Machine Gun for 2nd Otago Infantry Battalion to replace one condemned- out of action for want of a bolt, worn and depilated parts generally. 208 revolvers colt received completing equipment of no 2 and 3 Machine Gun Corps

14 April – Ordinary routine

15 April – Received from Base on Lewis Machine Gun demanded 13th last for 2nd Otago Infantry Battalion

16 -17 April – Ordinary routine

18 April – Received from Base 1200 Helmets (Trench Pattern) with steel curtain eye protectors – it is not considered that they are an improvement and most units have not uplifted their quota.

19 April – Ordinary routine

20 April – Received from Base our quota of Mk II barrels and cups for Machine Gun Corps – these were issued as soon as possible, and Barrels and Cups Mk I released and sent to Base.

21 April – Ordinary routine

22 April – Two barrel and shroud rangefinders sent to IX Corps Workshops for overhaul and testing, all BRSs on charge are being forwarded as checked by IOM.

23 – 24 April – Ordinary routine.

23 April –  6/1147 Armourer Sergeant Walter Gus Smiley appointed, Temporary Warrant Officer Class One (Acting Sub-Conductor) vice Acting Sub Conductor Coltman

24 April – 6/3459 Temporary Sergeant Clarence Adrian Seay appointed (Acting Sub-Conductor), Temporary Warrant Officer Class vice Simmons

25 April – Nine Sennett periscopes were received on allotment from Base for trial and report by Division

26 – 28 April – Ordinary routine

29 April – Demanded Ordnance Q F 18pdr without BM to replace on condemned by IOM 53 Workshops for wear and scouring, 12th Battery NZFA.

30 April – Took over from 20th Division Neuve-Eglise Baths and Salvage Dumps. An average of 2750 men are now being bathed and supplied with clean under clothing daily by this division.

DADOS NZ DIVISION – WAR DAIRY,
MAY 1917

Location: De Seule

1 May – Demanded one Vickers Machine Gun for 1 of NZ Machine Gun Company to replace one condemned through wear.

2 May – Ordinary routine.

3 May – Ordinary routine. Advise dispatched to Base of Ordnance QF 18pdr No 1674.

4 May – Received Vickers Gun No 4071 demanded on 1 May. Also demanded Ordnance QF 18pdr for 3rd Battery NZFA replacing No 4456 condemned through enemy shelling.

5 May – Ordinary routine.

6 May – Ordinary routine. Demanded one Vickers Gun for 3rd Machine Gun Company replacing No 7703 condemned through enemy shell fire.

7 May – Received from base 100 Yukon packs being a Division allotment. Also received Ordnance QF 18pdr No 6056 for 12th Battery, 3rd Brigade NZFA demanded on 29 April. Demanded one Lewis Machine Gun for 2nd Wellington Infantry Battalion and one Vickers Gun for 3rd Machine Gun Company replacing others condemned through wear.

8 May – Ordnance routine.

9 May – Received one Lewis Machine Gun No E31755 and two Vickers Machine Guns No 3524 and A3299demanded on 6 and 7 May.

10 May – Demanded Ordnance QF 18pdr for 1st Battery, 1st Brigade NZFA to replace No 5237 condemned through enemy shelling.

11 May – Received from Base Ordnance QF 18pdr No 2696 for 3rd Battery NZFA. Handed over “Pamir” Baths to 25th Division.

12 May – Demanded Ordnance QF 18pdr for 3rd Battery, 1st Brigade, NZFA to replace No 2553 condemned through enemy shelling. Advised dispatch to Base of Ordnance QF 18pdr No 5237.

13 – 17 May – Ordinary routine

18 May – Received Ordnance QF 18pdr No 7877 for 1st Battery.

19 May – Ordinary routine.

20 May – Advised dispatched to base of Ordnance QF 18pdr No 2553 (Condemned). Received Ordnance QF 18pdr No 3989 for 3rd Battery. Advice need of move to NZ Division of 311th Army Field Artillery Brigade – from DADOS 31st Division.

21 – 22 May – Ordinary routine

23 May – Received advice   from ADOS of the following moves;

  • 311th Army Field Artillery Brigade to NZ Division
  • A Battery 38th Army Field Artillery Brigade to NZ Division
  • 242nd Army Field Artillery Brigade to NZ Division

24 May – Above moves confirmed to all concerned. Received 150 Yukon packs for Division, these were issued 50 to each of the three Infantry Brigades.

25 -27 May – Ordinary routine.

28 May – Demanded two Ordnance QF 18pdrs for C Battery 242nd Army Field Artillery Brigade to replace Nos 1983 and 3754 condemned through enemy shellfire. Advised dispatched to base of condemned pieces.

29 -30 May – Ordinary routine.

31 May – Demanded one Vickers for 2nd Machine Gun Company replacing one condemned through wear.

 

Operational Overview

From 7 June the New Zealand Division would participate in the Battle of Messines, taking all its objectives, including the village of Messines. The New Zealand Division suffered 3700 casualties, including 700 killed during the battle.

DADOS NZ DIVISION – WAR DAIRY,
JUNE 1917

Location: De Seule

1 June

  • 11/1079 Lieutenant-Colonel Alfred Henry Herbert awarded Distinguished Service Order

1 – 6 June – In addition to ordinary routine the issue of special stores for active operations was completed. These included;

  • 13 Carts Water tank with necessary harness,
  • 300 set pack saddlery,
  • 5000 Breakers wire,
  • 3000 cutters wire,
  • 300 Gloves Hedging,
  • 3420 Grenade Carriers, Emergency pattern ammunition carriers for 18pdr/4.5 Howitzer. 8/10 per gun to all Batteries,
  • Tarpaulins for covering ammunition,
  • Yukon pack and carriers for Lewis MG Magazines.

In reference to the making of the Yukon packs in the Division, it is observed that much economy could have resulted had these been made under one command and completed in number to suit the supply of raw material as it became available. These remarks apply also to the making of extra carriers for LMG magazines undertaken by Battalions.

June 7 to 30 – During offensive operations Salvage work was carried out under the direction of Ordnance, and very large quantities of personnel and technical equipment was brought in without delay and ammunition bombs collected, Close on 3000 serviceable rifles alone were cleaned, oiled and tied into bundles and dispatched to Base. Lewis and Vickers guns, magazines and spare parts, enemy machine guns and mortars were salvaged also.

21 Lewis Machine Guns and 7 Vickers Machine Guns were replaced by new guns and at all times well within 24 hours from time of advice being received here of condemnation or certified loss from shell fire. In this connection the working of the Army Gun Park was found most expeditious; 21 18pdr guns and 10 Carriages, one 4.5 Howitzer were also demanded for various reasons in replacement of others, in one case only was any of these items – an 18pdr demanded without a certificate of condemnation by an IOM. This was reported completely destroyed by hostile shell fire and condemnation not been received within two days messages to confirm were answered to the effect that the carriage in question had been found to be serviceable after been dug out. This again impresses the fact of the necessity of IOM reports in cases of this kind.

10 June

  • 23/659 Warrant Officer Class One (Conductor) William Henchcliffe Simmons promoted Second Lieutenant, vice Bond
  • 12/689 2nd Lieutenant Alfred James Bond Marched in from Sling Camp in the UK and seconded to No 5 (NZ) Light Railway Operating Section.

15 June

  • 9/39 Second Lieutenant Charles Ingram Gossage Marched out to the United Kingdom to attend Ordnance course

On the 23rd June, the 34th, 93rd and 2nd NZ Brigades of Army Field Artillery were moved to this formation for Ordnance Services making in all five Army FA Brigades and one odd Battery in addition to our own Brigades to administer. It is very marked that all Army FA Brigades are very extravagant in their demands on Ordnance and the appointment of an Ordnance representative attached to each Brigade would undoubtfully result in a great economy.

The following enemy stores were handed into Ordnance here by units of this Division as a result of offensive operations and delivered to APM of II Anzac Corps

  • 3 Field Guns (77mm)
  • 23 Machine Guns of 8 trench mountings
  • 6 Machine Guns of new light platform
  • 1 Machine Gun (French)
  • 10 Trench mortars of various calibres
  • 3 Rocket Mortars
  • 3 Grenade throwers

To the Base was despatched;

  • 3 boxes Armour Piercing rifle ammunition
  • 1 box of wine cased
  • 5 boxes of ordinary
  • 2 cases mortar shells
  • 40 boxes belt ammunition with belts

 

DADOS NZ DIVISION – WAR DAIRY,
JULY 1917

Location: De Seule

1 – 31 July – Ordinary routine

2109 pairs of Trousers SD were issued to equip men wearing pantaloons contrary to Dress Regulations

6 18pdr Guns and 4 4.5inch Howitzer were demanded to replace others.

3 18pdr carriages and 5 4.5inch Howitzer carriages were demanded to replace others condemned

5 Vickers Machine Guns were issued in replacement of others worn or destroyed by hostile shellfire.

DADOS NZ DIVISION – WAR DAIRY, AUGUST 1917

Location: De Seule

1 – 25 August – Ordinary routine. 1600 special tins for conveying water were received to replace petrol tins as now used for this purpose. Five percent of these tins were damaged when received owing to faulty manufacture, handles were broken off, the sharp sprout had punctured holes in many. For the purpose intended it is considered this tin is a failure.

100 roughly made stretches issued to the Division for Messines operation that came to late to be used then were returned to Base after being held in store for two months.

26 August – Moved Ordnance to Caëstre

Location: Caëstre

27 – 28 August Trucked underclothing from Divisional Baths for Lumbres.

Location: Nielles-les-Bléquin

29 August – Moved Ordnance to Nielles-les-Bléquin and opened up again for Ordnance Services

30 – 31 August – Ordinary routine

The Divisional Bath and Laundry at Pont de Nieppe were destroyed by enemy shell fire on the 12th of August, as the position had become untenable it was decided not to put them into working order again. Stock and fittings that were not damaged was removed and on the 18th the Baths at Steenwerck were taken over by the Division and converted into a laundry, which was started satisfactorily by the 20th  It was a going concern when handed over on the 25th to the 8th Division, The Building of Brigade Bathhouses and changing rooms was undertaken at this time also and were ready for use when the Division was relieved.

DADOS NZ DIVISION – WAR DAIRY, SEPTEMBER 1917

Location: Nielles-les-Bleguine

1 – 2 September – General routine

3 September – Took over Baths at Balinghem. This was situated in the 2nd NZ Rifle Brigade area.

4 September – General routine

5 September – Opened Baths at Haverskerque for 4th NZ Infantry Brigade.

6 -12 September – General routine.

13 September – Opened Baths at Selles for 1st NZ Infantry Brigade.

14 – 17 September – General routine

18th September – Opened Baths at Merck-Saint-Liévin for Divisional Artillery. These Baths only worked two days owing to the Artillery being moved.

19 – 20 September – General routine

21 – 22 September – Divisional Artillery and Headquarters Company Divisional Train were moved to Ordnance 33rd Division for administration. Our own Ordnance (Artillery) personnel accompanied them with one motor lorry attached.

23 – 24 September – General routine

23 – 20 September

  • 6/1147 Temporary Warrant Officer Class One (Acting Sub-Conductor) Walter Gus Smiley and 10/1631 Corporal John Joseph Roberts detached to DADOS 33rd

25 September – Division on the move to Watou area. Closed Selles and Haverskerque Baths. All our motor lorries were kept exceedingly busy removing camp equipment and clothing. Also removing Ordnance Stores to railhead to be forwarded by rail to the new destination.

26 September – Removing soiled clothing to Blendecques laundry and moved Ordnance Stores to the railhead. Closed Blendecques Baths.

27 September – Moved with 5 Lorries to Poperinghe and established dump in an open field.

28 September – Moved dump to stores at 65 Rue de Boeschepe. Artillery moved back from 33rd Division. Opened two baths in Watou area.

29 September – Clearing Stores sent by rail, stores from Base also received.

30 September – General routine. 59th Division Artillery moved to us for administration with two AOC personnel.

  • 6/3459 Temporary Warrant Officer Class One and Acting Sub Conductor Clarence Adrian Seay promoted to Warrant Officer Class One and (Conductor) vice Simmons on his promotion

Operational overview

On 4 October as part of the third Battle of Ypres the New Zealand 1st and 4th brigades took part in a successful attack on Gravenstafel Spur, which runs off Passchendaele ridge. The attack cost more than 320 New Zealand lives.

On the 12 October on what would be New Zealand’s blackest day the 2nd and 3rd (Rifle) brigades suffered over 3700 casualties in a disastrous attack on Bellevue Spur, Passchendaele. About 845 men were left dead or dying.

DADOS NZ DIVISION – WAR DAIRY, OCTOBER 1917

Location: Poperinghe

1 October – Established Baths at Vlamertinge and Poperinghe.

2 – 3 October – Special stores for operations coming to hand and being issued to units. The stores referred to were those authorised over and above AFG 1098 and GROs for the offensive in front of Passchendaele Ridge. They comprised Pack-saddlery, Carts Carrying Water, Wire Cutters, Yukon Packs, water tins etc.

4 October – Four German Machine Guns were brought in – three from 1st Otago Battalion and two from the Divisional Salvage Company. These guns had apparently been lying out in the open some considerable time.

5 October – The 59th Division Artillery and Company Army Service Corps which were attached for administration were moved back to 59th Division.

6 October – Stores which were issued to units for special operations being handed in by units. Demanded 1 18pdr on indent NZ0/7192 for 13th Battery NZFA to replace No2841 and 2 18pdrs on indent NZ0/7193 for 1st Battery NZFA to replace 4090 and 318. These three guns were condemned by IOM for scouring.

7 October – 1st Wellington Battalion returned 11 captured enemy machine guns. The 48th Divisional Artillery Company ASC were moved to us for administration.

8 October – Demanded 18pdr on NZ0/7212 for A Battery 241 Brigade RFA to replace No 3987 condemned for scouring. Received captured enemy machine gun from 2nd Machine Gun Company.

9 October – Received 18pdr No 9697 fro 13th Battery off indent NZ0/7192 and 2 19pdrs Nos 6754 and 7103 for 1st Battery NZF off indent NZ0/7193.

10 October – Issuing stores for special operations. Received 18pdr No 2252 off indent NZ0/7212 for A Battery 241st Brigade RFA. Received 5 enemy captured machine guns returned by 1st Auckland Battalion.

11 October- Started issuing winter clothing. Demanded 18pdr on indent NZ0/7269 to replace No 4312 condemned for scouring,

12 October – Demanded carriage 18pdr on indent NZ0/7303 for A Battery 241st Brigade RFA to replace No C/33458 condemned on account of damage on recuperator.

13 October – Received 18pdr No 8042 off indent NZ0/7269 for 12th Battery NZFA. Sent 32 enemy machine guns to Base.

14 October – Received Carriage 18pdr No 35555 off indent NZ0/7303 for A Battery 241st Brigade RFA. Received 3 captured enemy machine guns from 3rd Otago Battalion,

15 October – Established an Ordnance dump at X Camp for the purpose of receiving surplus stores from units in the forward areas.

16 October – 1 enemy machine gun returned by Pioneer Battalion and 3 salved by Divisional Salvage Company.

17 October – 8 captured enemy machine guns returned by 3rd Canterbury Battalion and 4 salved by Divisional Salvage Company. Demanded 18pdr on indent NZ0/7404.

18 October – Established Bathhouse at Canal Bank issued clean clothes to 4th Battalion of 4th Infantry Brigade.

19 October – 2 enemy machineguns returned by Divisional Salvage Company.

20 October – 14 enemy machine guns were returned to Base. Closed Ordnance Dump at X Camp and established forward dump at St Jean (Sint-Jan) crossroads.

21 October – 2 enemy machine guns were returned to Base.

22 October – Moved from Poperinghe and established Ordnance dump at Nielles-les-Bléquin.

23 October – Received 18pdr No 765 off indent NZ0/7404 for 3rd Battery NZFA.

24 October –   Ordinary routine.

25 October – Opened Bathhouse at Haverskerque for 3rd NZ Rifle Brigade and at Selles for 2nd NZ Infantry Brigade.

26 October – Opened Bathhouse at Bayenghem for 1st NZ Infantry Brigade

27 – 29 October – Ordinary routine

30 October – 1 enemy machine gun returned by 4th Battalion NZ Rifle Brigade.

31 October – During the month of October 36 Lewis Machine Guns, 5 Vickers Machine Guns and 1 Stokes 3inch Trench Mortar were demanded by various units to replace lost and destroyed. These were supplied from ones salved by Division Salvage Company which were overhauled and repaired at the Division Armourers shop and made serviceable. Not one single Machine Gun was demanded from Base.

 

DADOS NZ DIVISION – WAR DAIRY, NOVEMBER 1917

No Dairy for November

15 November – 6/1147 Temporary Warrant Officer Class One (Acting Sub-Conductor) Walter Gus Smiley promoted to Warrant Officer Class One and appointed Conductor

 

DADOS NZ DIVISION – WAR DAIRY, DECEMBER 1917

Location: Poperinghe

1 – 7 December – Ordinary routine

8 December -Demanded Lewis guns for 3rd Otago Battalion on indent No NZ0/8549 to replace one destroyed by shellfire, also 3 Lewis guns for 1st Otago Battalion for indent No NZ0/8562 to replace 3 destroyed by shelling.

9 December – Demanded 3” Stokes Trench Mortar for 2nd Light Trench Mortar Battery on indent No NZ0/8581 to replace on destroyed by shellfire.

10 December – Demanded 3” Stokes Trench Mortar for 4th Light Trench Mortar Battery on indent No NZ0/8595 to replace on destroyed by shellfire, also three Vickers Guns on ident NZ0/8604 for 2nd NZ Machine Gun Company to replace three destroyed by shellfire.

11 December – The bulk store which was situated at Palace Camp was moved to ANZAC Camp with the advance Brigade dumps, this was found more convenient as not so much handling of stores was entailed.

12 December – Lewis Gun No 58245 received for 3rd Otago Battalion off indent No NZ0/8549 to replace on destroyed by shellfire.  Received Lewis Guns No 57674 and 57695 for 1st Otago Battalion to replace three destroyed by shellfire. Three Vickers Guns received No 4411, 4441 and 7163 off indent No NZ0/8604 for 2nd NZ Machine Gun Company to replace same number destroyed by shellfire.

13 December – Received Board of Inquiry re the loss of a Limbered Wagon, Horses and Harnesses of the 2nd Wellington Infantry Battalion. The Army Commander concurred with the finding of the Board of the write off of £60 (estimated value) to the public Account. Also the Board in Inquiry re the loss of the Horse Harness of the 1st Wellington Battalion, The Army Commander concurred on the finding of the Board of a write off to the Public Account. Leather Jerkins been issued to Artillery units, Machine Gun Company’s, Salvage Company’s and Light Trench Mortar Batteries.

14 December – Vickers Gun No C4732 received for 4th NZ Machine Gun Company off indent No NZ0/8672 to replace one destroyed by shellfire. Demanded Ordnance QF 18pdr for 11th Battery NZFA on indent No NZ0/8696 to replace 5630 destroyed by hostile fire.

15 – 16 December – Ordinary routine.

17 December – Ordnance QF 18pdr No 4405 received for 11th Battery NZFA on indent No NZ0/8696 to replace one destroyed by shellfire

18 – 20 December – Ordinary routine.

21 December – Ordnance QF 4.5inch Howitzer for 4th Howitzer Battery NZFA on indent NZ0/8858 to replace 1533 condemned for wear.

22 – 25 December – Ordinary routine

26 December – Demanded Lewis Gun for 2nd Otago Battalion on indent No NZ0/8955 to replace on destroyed by enemy shellfire. Also, Ordnance QF 18pdr for 3rd Battery NZFA on indent No NZ0/ 8956 to replace 4478 condemned by IOM.

27 December – Received 3inch Stokes Trench Mortar No 3835 off indent No NZ0/8581 for 2nd Light Trench Mortar Battery, also No 3826 off indent No NZ0/8505 received for 2nd Otago Battalion of indent No NZ0/8955. Issuing leather jerkins to complete all units to winter scale.

28 December – Ordinary routine

29 December – Ordnance QF 18pdr No 6746 received for 3rd Battery NZFA off indent No NZ0/5956 to replace 4478 condemned.

30 December – Demanded Lewis Gun for 3rd Otago Battalion off indent No NZ0/9008 to replace one destroyed by shellfire.

31 December – Demanded Ordnance QF 18pdr for 12th Battery NZFA to replace No condemned for scouring.

DADOS NZ DIVISION – WAR DAIRY, JANUARY 1918

Location: Poperinghe

January 1 -2 – Ordinary routine

January 3 – Ordnance QF 18pdr No 6678 received for 12th Battery NZFA off indent No NZ0/9057 replaced No 5397 condemned for scouring.

January 4 – Demanded Ordnance QF 18pdr and carriage for 3rd Battery NZFA on indent No NZ0/9155 to replace No 510 and 14465 destroyed by hostile shellfire.

January 5 – Demanded Vickers Gun for 5th NZ Machine Gun Company on indent No NZ0/9192 to replace one condemned beyond local repair.

January 6 – Ordinary routine

January 7 – Vickers Gun No 8147 received for 5th NZ Machine Gun Company off indent No NZ0/9192.

January 8 – 10 – Ordinary routine

January 11 – Demanded Vickers Gun for 5th NZ Machine Gun on indent No NZ0/9312 to replace one destroyed by hostile shellfire and Ordnance QF 18pdr for 13th Battery NZFA on indent No NZ0/9322 to replace No 2317 condemned for scouring.

January 12 – Slow Precautions imposed: No motor lorries were being used and all transport work was being carried out by GS Wagons and light railway, this means of carting was slow but proved quite satisfactory. Demanded Stokes 3inch Trench Mortar for the 4th Light Trench Mortar Battery on indent No NZ0/9325 to replace on destroyed by shellfire.

January 13 – Vickers Gun No 2679 received for 5th NZ Machine Gun Company off indent No NZ0/9312.

January 14 – Ordinary routine.

January 15 – Slow restrictions removed, and motor transport was reverted to.   Ordnance QF 18pdr No 5215 and carriage No 46329 received for 3rd Battery NZFA off indent No NZ0/9155 to replace Nos 510 and 14465 destroyed by hostile shellfire. Demanded Ordnance QF 18pdr for 13th Battery NZFA on indent No NZ0/9398 to replace No  3584 condemned for scouring.

January 16 – Slow precautions imposed. All transport wortrk was been carried out by horse transport with the exception of the Divisional Laundry which was undertaken with one motor lorry a day.

January 17 – 21 – Ordinary routine

January 22 – Slow restrictions were removed, and motor transport was reverted to.

January 23 – Three 6inch Newton Trench Mortars No 1164, 1034 and 345 received for Medium Trench Mortar Battery. These were ordered up for issue by Headquarters 4th Army.

January 24 – Ordinary routine

January 25 – Demanded Vickers Gun for 1st NZ Machine Gun Company on indent No NZ0/9620 to replace one destroyed by shellfire and Ordnance QF 18pdr for 1st Battery NZFA on indent No NZ0/9639 to replace No182 condemned for scouring.

January 26 – Ordinary routine

January 27 – Vickers Gun No 9678 received off indent No NZ0/9620 for 1st NZ Machine Gun Company to replace one destroyed by shellfire.

January 28-29 – Ordinary routine

January 31 – 5000shirts, 13100 vests woollen, 12450 Drawers Woollen, 12700 Towels and 19000 pairs of socks received from Base. These were authorised by Army at the request of the GOC Division as a pool at the Divisional Baths.

  • 8/1484 Staff Sergeant Edwin Stanley Green Posted to NZ Division Ammunition Column from NZAOC England

During the month five Vickers Guns, 133 Lewis Guns and 158 Rifles were repaired in the Divisional Armourers Shop.

 

DADOS NZ DIVISION – WAR DAIRY, FEBRUARY 1918

Location: Poperinghe

February 1 – 2 – Ordinary routine

February 3 – Ordnance QF 18pdr No 6755 received off indent No NZ0/9639 for 1st Battery NZFA to replace on condemned for scouring.

February 4 – Ordinary routine

February 5 – Moved stores to new dump at Café Belge. The new store was a most convenient one it been 120’x20’, this provided ample room for all stores to be put under cover.

February 6 – 10 – Ordinary routine.

February 11 – Took over Baths at Potijze from 66th Division.

February 12 – Demanded Ordnance QF 18pdr and carriage on indent No NZ0/2 for 11th Battery NZFA to replace No 2979 and 46383 destroyed by shellfire,

February 13 – Demanded 6inch Newton Trench Mortar for X Medium Trench Mortar Battery to replace No 347 destroyed by shellfire.

February 14 – Took over the laundry at Renninghelst from 66th Division. DOS inspected dump accompanied by DDOS 4th Army and ADOS XXII Corps. The General expressed that he was very pleased with everything he saw, particularly the work carried out by the Divisional Armourers.

February 15 – 6inch Newton Trench Mortar No 270 received off indent No NZ0/24 for X Medium Trench Mortar Battery to replace No 347 destroyed by shellfire.

February 16 – Ordinary routine.

February 17 – Ordnance QF 18pdr No 2252 and carriage No 35456 received for 11th Battery NZFA off indent No NZ0/2 to replace 29079 and 46383 destroyed by shellfire.

February 18 – Demanded Vickers MG for 3rd NZ Machine Gun Company on indent No NZ0/119 to replace No L8560 condemned beyond repair by Divisional Armourers.

February 19 – Ordinary routine.

February 20 – Vickers MG No 4244 secure for 3rd NZ Machine Gun Company off indent No NZ0/119 to replace No L8560 condemned.

February 21 – 22 – Ordinary routine.

February 23 – Took over Outtersteene laundry from 49th Division. Receiving surplus stores of units of the 4th NZ Infantry Brigade on been formed into an Entrenching Group.

  • 10/2484 Sergeant Harold Gordon Hill promoted to Temporary Sub Conductor and Warrant Officer Class One vice Goulding

February 24 – Handed over camp to 49th Division Ordnance. The Baths at Café Belge, Bissezeele Cross Roads, Potijze and Ottawa were handed over to 49th Division as a going concern as was the Divisional Laundry at Westoutre.

February 25 – Issued two Lewis MG to each Infantry Battalion and one to each Filed Company NZE and one per Battery of Artillery for Anti-Aircraft defence. These were issued from those handed in by Battalions of the 4th NZ Infantry Brigade.

February 26 – Baths were opened at Hondichen which are capable of bathing 800 men daily.

February 27 – Opened Baths at Staple – Capacity 800 men daily

February 28 – over the month of February three Vickers MG, 53 Lewis MG and 309 Rifles were repaired and overhauled by the Divisional Armourers shop during the Month.

Operational overview

On 21 March a massed German attack tears a hole in the British front, in response on 26 March the New Zealand Division is rushed to fill this gap near the Somme. They fight off several German attacks and hold their line.

DADOS NZ DIVISION – WAR DAIRY, MARCH 1918

Location: Hazebrouck

Baths were opened at Halifax Camp[7] and at Caistre.

During the month 14 Lewis Gun were demanded for various units, nine been issued as a first supply for anti-aircraft defence, 3 were to replace ones damaged by shellfire and two to replace losses to the enemy.

Eight Vickers Guns were received on instructions from Third Army to be fielded as a reserve to meet urgent demand. Two of these were issued the MG Battalion to replace weapons damaged by hostile fire. The balance (six) were returned to Ordnance Officer IV Corps troops.

Seven Gun Hotchkiss were demanded as a first supply and issued to units for Anti-Aircraft defence.

Two 3inch Stokes Trench Mortars were damaged by hostile fire and two to replace were issued

On moving from the rest area to the Somme all Baths were closed and handed over to area commanders. The Divisional laundry at Renninghelst was taken over as a going concern by XXII Corps. Hooge Baths at Ypres which were been worked for the Infantry Brigade and other units left in the line were handed over to 49th Division as a going concern.

The NZ Entrenching Group units were moved to Ordnance Officer XXII Corps Troops and the NZ Divisional Artillery units with Headquarters Company Divisional Train were moved back from DADOS Headquarters 49th Division for Ordnance.

22 March – 12/736 Sergeant (Temp CSM) John Francis Goulding Marched out to England for duty with 4th Infantry Brigade on 22 March 1911

Moved to the Somme on 25 March with four Motor Lorries and established an Ordnance dump at Bus les Artois on 27th March.

Location: Bus-lès-Artois

The 25th Division Artillery were moved from DADOS 25th Division for Ordnance. Their mobilisation stores and equipment suffered in the retreat before the German offensive and in consequence, their demands were exceedingly large. Eight Limbers 18pdr wagon and six wagons ammunition were demanded for them to replace losses to the enemy and one limber 18pdr wagon was issued to replace one condemned.

31 March

  • 6/1147 Warrant Officer Class One (Conductor) Walter Gus Smiley attached to Headquarters 2nd NZ Infantry Brigade
  • 11/1079 Lieutenant-Colonel Alfred Henry Herbert relinquished appointment of Officer Commanding NZAOC and DADOS NZ Division to be ADOS XI Army Corps.
  • 9/39 Second Lieutenant Charles Ingram Gossage Marched in from HQNZEF and Promoted to Lieutenant. Appointed DADOS vice Lt Col Herbert and granted the rank of Temporary Captain whilst holding the position.

54 Lewis MG, 21 Vickers MG and 529 Rifles were repaired and overhauled at Divisional Armourers shop during the month.

 

DADOS NZ DIVISION – WAR DAIRY,
APRIL 1918

Location: Bus-Les-Artois

4 April

  • 10/536 Armourer Sergeant Clarence Guy Charles Wagg proceeded to England for duty with 4th NZ Infantry Brigade Group

April – Demanded six 18pdr and carriages complete to replace same number lost to the enemy and one 4.5inch Howitzer and carriage to replace one condemned for wear for 25th Division Artillery. The six guns and carriages were later cancelled when the 25th Division Artillery were moved back for administration of Ordnance services to their own formation.

13 Lewis MG were issued to various units – six to replace destroyed by hostile fire, two to cover losses to the enemy, one to replace beyond repair and four to Divisional Artillery for defence against hostile aircraft.

13 Vickers MG were issued, four to replace destroyed by hostile fire, One to replace condemned for wear and eight issued to Machine Gun Battalion to be fielded as a reserve.

Issued one 3inch Stokes Trench Mortar to replace one destroyed by hostile fire.

Issued three 18pdr and carriages, and four 4.5inch Howitzers and one carriage 4.5inch Howitzer. All were to replace other condemned for wear.

Temporary Divisional Baths were opened at Béthencourt on the 6th and at Louvencourt on the 10th. On the 17th the new spacious baths of 18 sprays erected by Divisional Engineers were put into use at Béthencourt, which proved a great boom to the troops from the line. At these Baths the men handed in everything they possessed. Their valuables were taken care of, whilst the man was having a bath his SD clothing was deloused by use of hot irons. He came out of the bath with a complete change of underclothing. The total number of men bathed 28553.

The work undertaken by the Divisional Salvage company for the month was clearing the area generally of stores abandoned by troops in the recent retreat. Items salved of special interest included;

  • One Bristol Airplane,
  • One Triumph Norton Motorcycle,
  • Three Douglas Motorcycles,
  • The following enemy stores;
    • 285 Rifles,
    • 10 Bayonets and scabbards,
    • 25 Steel Helmets,
    • Four Pistol Signal,
    • Three Mountings MG,
    • 62 Belts MG,
    • 32 Belt boxes MG,
    • 95 Gas respirators

Solder recovered from Bully Beef time amounted to 441lbs which was despatched to the Base.

11 Vickers MG, 17 Lewis MG and 1256 rifles were repaired and overhauled at Divisional Armourers Shop for the month.

113 Machine Guns and three Trench Mortars (enemy) Captured by various units were dispatched to Base.

DADOS NZ DIVISION – WAR DAIRY,
MAY 1918

Location: Bus-Les-Artois

During the month the following Guns, Howitzers, Carriages Field, Trench Mortars and Machine Guns were demanded for various reasons;

  • Ordnance QF 18pdr, three – To replace three condemned by IOM for scouring.
  • Ordnance QF 4.5in Howitzer, One – To replace one condemned by IOM for wear.
  • Carriages field 18pdr, Four – To replace four condemned by IOM for wear.
  • Carriages field 4.5in Howitzer, one – To replace one destroyed by hostile fire.
  • 6” Newton Trench Mortar, one – To replace one destroyed by hostile fire.
  • 3” Stokes Trench Mortar, six – To replace two destroyed by hostile fire and to replace four condemned for wear.
  • Vickers Machine Guns 303, eight – To replace two destroyed by hostile fire and to replace six condemned by Armourers as past repair.
  • Lewis Machine Guns 303, 50 – 28 were issued as first supply to bring Battery’s up to 24 per Battery, exclusive of guns on charge for anti-aircraft defence.

The NZ entrenching Group were moved from Ordnance XXII Corps Troops to this formation for administration in Ordnance services on 17 May but were three days later moved to Ordnance Officer IV Corps Troops, under instructions from IV Corps.

On 22 May the 2nd NZ Field Artillery Brigade were moved from Ordnance IV Corps Troops to be under administration of Ordnance this formation, but on 25 May 3rd Army ordered them to be moved back as the movement was contrary to GRO 3783.

Our months works a whole was of a routine nature. Some difficulty was experienced in keeping the Baths going once or twice owing to the water supply giving out when the pumping plant broke down. Water carts were borrowed from neighbouring units and the water was carted and the baths kept going in this formation.

We were much hampered for clean underclothing due to the irregularity of the railway. Trucks were often as long as 6-7 days on road driving the short distance from Abbeville.

A small sock washing depot was established with 16 men. This was found essential so that the soldiers in the front line could have a clean change daily. Socks torn or found with holes were returned to the laundry as the darning could not be coped with. In fine weather, the drying was done outside but when wet the socks were hung on wires from the ceiling of a room and dried by means of coke braziers. Then men did excellent work and coped with 4 to 5 thousand pairs daily and kept up an adequate supply.

Ordnance stores arriving from Base were often very much behind timetable and two or three bulk demands would arrive together. The irregularity was evidently on account of shortages in railway rolling stock.

There was not anything particular to not in the work carried out by the Divisional Salvage Company except the recovery of 2000lbs of salvage from Bully Beef tins.

The Divisional Armourers Shop repaired and overhauled 14 Vickers MG, Seven Lewis MG, One Hotchkiss MG and 335 rifles in addition to special repairs to Bicycles etc.

45425 men passed through the Divisional Baths during the month,

 

DADOS NZ DIVISION – WAR DAIRY,
JUNE 1918

Location: 1 – 7 June: Bus-Les-Artois

During the month the following Guns, Howitzers, Carriages Field, Trench Mortars and Machine Guns were demanded for various reasons;

  • Two Ordnance QF 18pdr – To replace two condemned by IOM for scouring.
  • Five Ordnance QF 4.5in Howitzer – To replace five condemned by IOM for wear.
  • Three Carriages field 18pdr – To replace one damaged by shellfire, one condemned by IOM for wear and one for violent recoil.
  • One Carriages field 4.5in Howitzer – To replace one destroyed by shellfire and one condemned by IOM for wear.
  • Six 3” Stokes Trench Mortar – To replace two destroyed by hostile fire and to replace four condemned for wear.
  • Two Vickers Machine Guns 303 – To replace two condemned Beyond Local Repair.
  • 96 Lewis Machine Guns 303 – issued as first supply to bring Infantry Battalions up to scale of 32, exclusive of guns on charge for anti-aircraft defence.

On the 6th Baths at Béthencourt and Louvencourt were handed over to 42nd Division and Baths at Authie, Pas and Henu were taken over from 37th Division. The Baths at Authie were entirely unsatisfactory and extensive alterations were carried out so that system for bathing, delousing SD clothing, issuing and receiving underclothing could be put into force.  These were capital baths when completed and as many as 1500 troops were passed through daily.  The system of delousing the soldiers Service Dress clothing was carried out by means of hot air. As the man passed into the bath he handed in hi garments turned inside out and they were hung up in a small air tight chamber. The air tight compartment was heated up by coke braziers and after the garments had been treated by this method for 15 minutes they were found to be perfectly free form lice and eggs.

Location: 7 -21 June: Pas

On the 7th the Division moved to Pas where Ordnance was established until the 21st when the Division moved to Authie and Ordnance again opened up. The baths at Pas and Henu were handed over to the 37th Division on the 21st.

Location: 21 – 30 June:Authie

A small bath at Nauchelles was taken in hand, another formation had started alterations which were left unfinished. The work was completed by the Division and the baths proved entirely satisfactory and between 700 – 800 troops were bathed daily

The greater part of demand for boots were met by repaired ones and numerous complaints were met from units that the men were unable to wear the boots issued. The matter was referred to 3rd Army who was taking action to prevent further issues of this kind to troops in the field.

Divisional Salvage dumps were established about the areas into which abandoned stores were collected and sorted. 1800lbs of solder were recovered from Bully Beef tins.

The Divisional Armourers shop repaired and overhauled 13 Machine Guns and 153 rifles.

46411 passed through the Divisional Baths during the month.

24 June – 9/39 Temporary Captain Charles Ingram Promoted to Temporary Major while holding the appointment of DADOS. 24 June 1918

NZAOC Nominal Roll End of June 1918

  • 9/39 Temporary Major Charles Ingram Gossage (DADOS)
  • 23/659 2nd Lieutenant William Henchcliffe Simmons
  • 6/3459 Warrant Officer Class One (Conductor) Clarence Adrian Seay
  • 6/1147 Warrant Officer Class One (Conductor) Walter Gus Smiley
  • 8/1484 Staff Sergeant Edwin Stanley Green (NZ Division Ammunition Column)
  • 10/2484 Sergeant Harold Gordon Hill
  • 8/584 Sergeant Frank Percy Hutton
  • 11/42 Armourer Sergeant Percy William Charles Dement
  • 11/337 Armourer Sergeant William Alexander Mason
  • 26/1155a Armourer Sergeant Charles Alfred Oldbury
  • 9/1191 Corporal (Armourer) Percival James Lester
  • 10/1631 Corporal John Joseph Roberts

Copyright © Robert McKie 2019

20180605_195417-190082474.jpg

New Zealand Army Ordnance Corps Badge, 1916-1919 (Robert McKie Collection 2017)

 

Notes

[1] United Kingdom – Army Ordnance Department (AOD) until 1918 and then Army Ordnance Corps ((AOC), Australia – Australian Army Ordnance Corps (AAOC), Canada – Canadian Ordnance Corps (COC), South Africa – South African Ordnance Department (SAOD), India – Indian Army Ordnance Department (IAOD) and New Zealand – New Zealand Army Ordnance Corps (NZAOC)

[2] The exact manning and organisation of the New Zealand Division DADOS branch is unknown at this stage, but would have been similar to the organisation of the AAOC Ordnance Staff which was comprised of:

  • 1 Officer as DADOS (MAJ/CAPT)
  • 1 Conductor of Ordnance Stores per Divisional HQ
  • 1 Sergeant AAOC per Divisional HQ
  • 1 Corporal AAOC per Divisional HQ
  • 3 RQMS (WO1) AAOC
  • 3 Sergeants AAOC, 1 to each of 3 Brigades
  • 3 Corporals AAOC , 1 to each of 3 Brigades

As the war progressed additional Ordnance Officers wold be included into the DADOS establishment who along with the Warrant Officer Conductor would manage the Ordnance staff and day to day operations allowing the DADOS the freedom to liaise with the divisional staff, units and supporting AOC units and Ordnance Depots. John D Tilbrook, To the Warrior His Arms: A History of the Ordnance Services in the Australian Army (Royal Australian Army Ordnance Corps Committee, 1989), 78.

[3] Ordnance Manual (War), War Office (London: His Majesties Printing Office, 1914).

[4] P.H. Williams, Ordnance: Equipping the British Army for the Great War (History Press, 2018), 126.

[5] Arthur Forbes, A History of the Army Ordnance Services (London: The Medici society, ltd., 1929), 73-74.

[6] Bends is the leatherworking name for Sole leather. Sole Bends are heavily tanned skirting leather that has been compressed by casing with water and then plating, rolling, and pounding the moisture out of it tightening the grain and making it stiffer. It can be oiled, dyed finished much like any other skirting, however there is much less penetration due to the tightness of the fibres.

[7] Southwest from Vlamertinge towards village of Reningelst.


Military Store Department in New Zealand 1857-1870

“I wish to thank all would have contributed to the writing of this article, and in particular Peter Stout and Paul Hardy and Martin Wharton”

During the New Zealand Wars that fell between 1840 and 1870, responsibility for the provision of Logistical support to the Imperial Forces in New Zealand fell to two organisations; The Commissariat whose duty was to keep the soldier well fed and the Military Store Department whose function was to keep the soldier well and comfortably clad and amply supplied with the munitions of war. The smaller of the two organisations the activities of the Military Store Department have been overshadowed by the much larger and more well-known Commissariat. With its origins with the Board of Ordnance, who sent representatives from their office in New South Wales to the colony of New Zealand in 1840. The Military Store Department would provide what is now known as Ordnance support to the Imperial Forces until their departure in 1869, and on the completion of the final administrative clean-up, the last representative of the Military Store Department departed New Zealand in 1870. This article is not intended to be a detailed history of the Military Store Department, but an introduction of the organisation and its personnel and a point of reference for further research.

Board of Ordnance
The Arms of the Board of Ordnance. UK national archives

The origins of the Military Store Department lie with the Board of Ordnance, which under the Master General of the Ordnance existed between 1597 and 1855. The Master General of the Ordnance had a dual civilian and military role; the military function as commander of the Artillery and the Engineers, and a civil role, as head of the Ordnance Department, with responsibility for stores, lands, geographical and geological survey, defensive works, barracks, military hospitals, factories and contracts. During 1792 the Board of Ordnance established two distinct departments to support the Army; the “Storekeepers” and the “Ordnance Field Train, the officers of the latter were called Commissaries of Ordnance, and as such was employed during the period of the Crimean war.[1] The Board of Ordnance had due to the logistical failures of the Crimean war, was abolished in 1855 and its functions placed under the supervision of the War Office while reformation of the British Army’s administrative system took place. In 1857 the two services were amalgamated to form the Military Store Department.[2]

The story of the Military Store Department in New Zealand begins in the Colony of New South Wales when in 1836 the Board of Ordnance established a presence in the Australian Colony. At the time the commissariat (part of the civil administration) was responsible for general supplies and storekeeping with the Brigade Major (Military) accountable for the guns and gunpowder. On 1 January 1836, these functions were transferred from the Commissariat to the Board of Ordnance (Ordnance Storekeeper) and the Office of the Colonial Storekeeper. Although there was a separation of duties between the Board of Ordnance and the Colonial Storekeeper both had responsibility for guns and gunpowder and shared premises and personnel.[3]  Located in George Street North, The Ordnance Storekeeper’s Department under the leadership of storekeeper Richard Rogers; included as his staff his assistant, Percival Wilkinson; and five clerks; John MacDonald, Richard Rogers, William Plummer, Joseph Osbertus Hamley, and Thomas Lawry.[4]

With the establishment of New Zealand as a dependency of New South Wales, the New Zealand colonial administration came from within the ranks of the New South Wales administration, including the Colonial Storekeeper. The Colonial Storekeepers office was included in the First wave of administrators to arrive with Governor William Hobson in January 1840.[5] Mr Charles Hook Gordon Logie of the Sydney based Colonial Storekeepers was appointed on 15 January 1840 to hold the appointment of Colonial Storekeeper in Hobsons administration.[6] The Colonial Storekeeper reported to the Colonial Secretary and was responsible for providing the local colonial militia with arms and accoutrements but had no responsibility for Imperial troops. Imperial troops in New Zealand were the responsibility of the Board of Ordnance. Stores and services provided to the Colonial Storekeeper from Board of Ordnance stocks were on a “repayment” basis, an arrangement that would remain in place until the withdrawal of Imperial troops in 1870.

In April 1840 a detachment of 30 rank and file of the 80th Regiment of the British Army arrived from Sydney for service in New Zealand on board HMS Buffalo.[7] Accompanying them was a representative of the Board of Ordnance to cater for their logistical needs, establishing an Imperial Ordnance presence that would remain in New Zealand until 1870.[8] Detachments of the 80th Regiment later deployed to Auckland where under the direction of George Graham of the Ordnance Department they undertook construction of Fort Britomart.[9]

As the strength of Imperial Forces increased and became more of a permanent feature of the early New Zealand colonial landscape, the Board of Ordnance extended its reach into New Zealand from 1842. First establishing an office in Auckland and later Wellington with the responsibility for the construction and maintenance of barracks and ensuring the provision of Imperial military units in New Zealand with munitions and that they remained comfortably furnished with uniforms and necessities.[10]

The Auckland Office of Ordnance located in Princes Street, was under the management of Mr William Plummer,[11] with storage facilities divided between a bombproof magazine at the Mount Albert Barracks and an ordnance store at Fort Britomart.[12]

The Wellington Office of Ordnance, with Mr Joseph Osbertus Hamley as the Acting Ordnance Storekeeper had a magazine at Mount Cook and stone warehouse on Lambton Quay and later a warehouse in Farish Street.[13]

Farish Street
[Park, Robert] 1812-1870. Attributed works: [Sketches showing the damage to buildings sustained in the 1848 Wellington earthquake] 1848. Reference number: PUBL-0050-01. Permission of the Alexander Turnbull Library, Wellington, New Zealand, must be obtained before any re-use of this image. The impact of the 1848 earthquake on rigid constructions of stone and brick may be seen from these sketches of that time.

The great earthquake of 1848 which changed the landscape of Wellington also severely damaged the ordnance stores located in the Manners/Farish Street area leading to the granting of 13 acres of land to the Board of Ordnance in what would become the military reserve of Mount Cook.[14]  After the earthquake, Hamley set up an office in Willis Street and continued to use the Farish Street warehouse until 1855 when advertised as the “largest and most capacious in Wellington, and being in the centre of the business part of the town” advertised the Farish Street premises for sale.[15]

Plan of Mount Cook Barracks, as planned c.1845 and largely as built by 1852.

In December 1852 it was announced that the Master General of Ordnance had made the following promotions and appointments in the Ordnance Department, In New Zealand; [16]

  • William Plummer, Esq, to be Deputy Ordnance Storekeeper and Barrack Master at Auckland; and
  • Joseph Osbertus Hamley, Esq, to be Deputy Ordnance Storekeeper and Barrack Master at Wellington.[17]

On 4  March 1859, at the age of 39 years, Plummer passed away, resulting in Hamley moving from Wellington and assumed charge of all Ordnance operations in New Zealand.[18]

Following the panic of the Crimean war, and the abolishment of the Board of Ordnance, the Board’s civil officers, were reorganised into a new organisation called the Military Store Department on 1 February 1857. [19], under the title of MilitaryStore Officers, the gradings being:

  • Principal MilitaryStorekeeper and Military Storekeeper, both ranking as Lieutenant Colonel,
  • Deputy Military Storekeeper ranked as a Major, and
  • Assistant ranked as Captain.

The formation of the Military Store Department was one of many organisational reforms were undertaken to modernise and make the administration of the army more effective.[20] [21]The changes soon filtered through to the colonies and the existing Ordnance organisations adapted to the new structures accordingly. Further changes occurred during 1861 with the issuing of Royal Warrants reorganising the Military Store Department and improving the position of the officers.[22] [23] The Royal Warrants granted commissions to the officers of the Military Store Department, [24]  organised into five grades:[25]

  • Principal Superintendent of Stores, ranked as Colonel,
  • Superintendent of Stores; ranked as Lieutenant Colonel,
  • Deputy Superintendent of Stores; ranked as Major,
  • Assistant Superintendent of Stores; ranked as Captain,
  • Deputy Assistant Superintendent of Stores; ranked as Lieutenant.

After some initial conflict in the mid-1840’s New Zealand settled into a period of relative peace, with underlying tensions between Maori and the settlers remaining, resulting in conflict erupting in the Taranaki in 1860. The dispute led to an escalation of Imperial troop levels so that by Mach 1864 the strength of Colonial and Imperial forces in New Zealand had grown from a few hundred in the 1840s, to at its peak a  force of about 18000, including; [26][27]

  • Royal Navy with Royal Marines
  • Ten Infantry Battalions,
  • Two Batteries of the Royal Artillery,
  • Royal Engineers,
  • Military Train,
  • Commissariat Staff Corps,
  • Commissariat Transport Corps,
  • Army Medical Department,
  • Purveyors Department,
  • Military Store Department,
  • Colonial Defence Force
    • Cavalry
    • Forest Rangers
  • Various Colonial Militia, Volunteer and Military Settler units, Including the;
    • Auckland Militia
    • Waikato Militia
  • Pro-British Māori iwi (Kupapa)

Expanding to meet the demands of the growing Imperial Forces the New Zealand branch of the Military Store Department included the following staff;[28] [29]

Assistant Military Storekeeper/ Assistant Superintendent of Stores/ Deputy Superintendent of Stores

  • William Plummer, 1857 – 1859.[30]
  • Joseph Osbertus Hamley,1857 – 1870.[31]
  • C. Macduff, February 1861 – May 1866. [32]
Joseph Osbertus Hamley
Joseph Osbertus Hamley, circa 1860s. Photographer unidentified. Alexander Turnbull Library Reference Number: PA1-q-250-25-1 http://mp.natlib.govt.nz/detail/?id=27060

Acting Deputy Assistant Superintendent of Stores

  • Edward Foster Holden, from 1864.[33]

Deputy Assistant Superintendent of Stores

  • J Ingram,  March1861-1862. [34] [35] [36]
  • Joseph Michael Rainsford, 1862-1864.[37]
  • A.R Tribe, 1861 -1866[38]
  • William Marvin, 1862 – 1867.[39]
  • William Sidney Haldane, March1864 – 1868.[40] [41]
  • T Timbrell, March1864 – 1866.[42]
  • James White, March1864 -1866.[43]
  • W. B Le Gyet,1863-1866.
  • Henry Potter, 1863 -1867.[44]
  • Wilmot Holworthy, 1867-1867.
  • Dominick O’Loghlan MacDermott, 1867-1867.
  • T.G Stack, 1867-1867.
  • John Fullarton Beatson, 1867 – 1868,[45]

Other staff that were known to have worked as part of the MSD were;

  • Mr Michael Field,[46] [47]
  • Mr Maurice Norman Bower, 1857-1862 [48] [49]
  • Mr Gorrie,[50]
  • Mr Kerr, [51]
  • Edward Smith.[52]
  • David Evitt, [53]
  • Sergeant Alexander Stewart, 1861- 1864 [54]
  • Armourer Sergeant John Smith. [55]
  • John Fahy, [56]

Store conductors

Store Conductors were Non-Commissioned Officers selected from the Royal Artillery and units of the line based on their superior intelligence and exemplary conduct. [57] Reinforcing their knowledge of stores duties and procedures by attending a six-week course at the Tower and Woolwich Arsenal prepared and confirmed their appointment as Stores Conductors.[58] Known Stores Conductors in New Zealand were;[59]

  • 3242 Sergeant -Master Gunner John Bates, Royal Artillery, 5 Mar 1861 – 20 Jun 1866,
    • Served: Waitara, Te Arei Pa and Auckland,
  • 3153 Sergeant 3rd Class Benjamin Evans, Royal Artillery, 1861 – 1866,
    • Transferred to MSSC 29 Jun 68
  • 687 Sergeant Caleb Bell, Royal Artillery, 1861 – 1866,
  • 2787 Sergeant John Brown, Royal Artillery,1 Aug 1861 – 14-Nov-66,
  • 1439 Sergeant William Brunkard, Royal Artillery, 1861 – 1866,[60]
  • 3074 Sergeant Hugh Carlin, Royal Artillery, 5 Mar 1864 – 1866,
    • Served Waikato and Wanganui,
  • 1080 Sergeant Archie Hood, Royal Artillery, 1861 – 1866,
    • Served Taranaki,
  • 1313 Sergeant Master Gunner Walter Kelsall, Royal Artillery, 1861 – 1866,
    • Served Auckland and Shepard Bush,18th Regt
  • Sergeant Alexander Stewart, Royal Artillery,[61]
    • In charge of the powder magazine at Albert Barracks from 1961 to 1964

From 1857 the military establishment of the Military Store Department was only officers, with civilians and soldiers seconded from other Corps or Regiments as required. The formation of a Military Store Staff Corps as an unformed branch of the British military had been under discussion for some time, with Major Hamley strongly recommending the creation of such as Corps in 1864.[62] Established by royal warrant in 1865 the Military Store Staff Corps created an establishment of soldiers to complement the officers of the Military Store Department.[63] Given that by the time of the granting of the royal warrant, and the establishment of the Military Store Staff Corps in 1866,[64] the Imperial forces in New Zealand were starting to wind down operations and depart New Zealand; it is currently unknown if Major Hamley was able to have his staff transferred to the Military Store Staff Corps.

ourheritagemediaoriginalfc5f46c2afbfb5e53b76cef5c40974d2
Williams, E. A. (Edward Arthur), 1824-1898, “Fort Britomart. Auckland.,” ourheritage.ac.nz | OUR Heritage, accessed July 28, 2018, http://www.otago.ourheritage.ac.nz/items/show/4884.

Uniforms of the Military Store Department

The Army Dress Regulations of 1864 details the specifications for the uniforms of the Military Store Department.[65]

Coat—Tunic, blue, single-breasted, with scarlet collar, cuffs and slash on sleeve. The collar rounded off in front; cuff round, two and three-quarter inches deep, and ten and a half round; slashed flap- on sleeve six inches long and two and a quarter inches wide, with three loops of halfinch lace, staff pattern, and uniform buttons; eight buttons in front at equal distances. The skirt ten and a half inches deep for an officer 5 feet 9 inches in height, with a variation of half an inch, longer or shorter”, for every inch of difference in the height of the wearer; blue flap on the skirt behind, ten inches deep, two buttons on flap, and one on waist, with three loops of halfinch lace. The coat, collar, cuffs, and flaps edged with scarlet cloth, quarter-inch, and the skirts lined with scarlet.

Distinctions of Rank according to the relative ranks in the army. Principal Superintendent of Stores, and Superintendent of Stores, the latter, after five years’ standing as such, as Colonel; the collar laced round the top and bottom, with a crown and star at each end of collar.

Superintendent of Stores, under five years’ standing, as Lieutenant-Colonel, same lace as Principal Superintendent, with a crown at each end of collar.

Deputy-Superintendent of Stores, as Major; the same lace, with a star at each end of collar.

Assistant- Superintendent of Stores, as Captain; the lace round top only of collar, a crown and star at each end.

Deputy-Assistant Superintendent of Stores, as Lieutenant; the same lace as Assistants, with a crown at each end of collar.

Officers ranking with Field Officers to have two rows of half-inch lace round the top of the cuff, and an edging of the same on the sleeve and skirt flaps, and down the edge of the skirts behind.

Officers under that rank to have one row of lace round the cuff, none on the skirts, and loops only on the skirt and sleeve flaps.

Lace gold, staff pattern, half an inch in width.

Buttons—gilt, with the crown and “Military Store Staff ” raised thereon.

Hat—cocked, the fan on back part nine inches, the front seven inches and a half, each corner five inches, uniform buttons gold lace loop, and tassels of gold crape fringe, with crimson underneath. Feather—black and white, cock-tail; top white, and bottom black, five and a half inches long, mushroom shaped.

Stock—black silk.

Trousers—blue cloth, with gold lace one and three-quarter inches broad, staff pattern, down outward seam.

Boots—Wellington.

Spurs—screw, yellow metal, crane neck, two inches long for Officers ranking with Field Officers; steel for Officers under that rank drawing forage.

Sword—as for Officers of Infantry.

Scabbard—brass, for Officers ranking with Field Officers, steel for all other ranks.

Sword-Knot—crimson and gold, with acorn tassel.

Sword-Belt—for Officers ranking with Field Officers, black morocco leather, one inch and a half wide, with two rows of gold embroidery in a scroll. Slings, embroidered on one side; plain gilt buckles to slings. For Officers under that rank, plain black morocco, without embroidery.

Plate —round gilt clasp, with V.R., surmounted in silver upon the centre-piece, and ” Military Store Staff” with a laurel, also in silver, on outer circle.

Frock-Coat—blue, double-breasted, with stand-up collar, rounded off in front ; cuffs and lapels all blue, cuff, ten and a half inches round, and two and three-quarter inches deep ; slashed flap on sleeve five and a quarter inches long, and one and a half inch wide, with three small uniform buttons, two rows of uniform buttons down the front, eight buttons in each row at equal distances. Flaps on skirt behind ten inches deep, with two buttons on flap and one on waist; the skirt lined with black, and seventeen inches deep for an Officer five feet nine inches in height, with a variation of half an inch, longer or shorter, for each inch of difference in the height of the wearer. The Officers ranking with Field Officers to have the badge of their rank (as crown or star) embroidered in gold at each end of the collar. The collars of all other Officers to be plain.

Waistcoat—blue, single-breasted, with uniform buttons, plain gold braid round collar, seams and pockets, finished with a crow’s foot at each end of pocket.

Undress Trousers—blue cloth, with scarlet stripe, one and three-quarter inches in width down outer seam, for Principal Superintendents of Stores and Superintendents after five years’ service.

For other ranks—blue, with two scarlet welts down each outward seam.

Forage-Cap—for Principal Superintendents of Stores and Superintendents after five years’ standing, blue cloth, with embroidered peak and gold lace band, staff’ lace, one and three-quarters inches in width, gold netted button on top.

For other ranks —blue cloth, with plain leather peak and chin-strap, with two rows of gold lace five-eighths of an inch wide, staff pattern, for band, showing scarlet between the lines, gold netted button on top.

Shell-Jacket— blue, with scarlet facings and uniform buttons.

Cloak—blue pattern, as for Officers of Infantry, with uniform buttons.

Horse Furniture—as for Medical Officers.

Infrastructure

Commensurate with the growth of the Imperial Forces, The Military Store Department, alongside the much larger Commissariat [66] [67] had kept pace and by 1864 Fort Britomart and Albert Barracks in Auckland had become the central storage and distribution depot (Logistic Hub in modern terms) for all the Imperial troops stationed throughout New Zealand.[68] The Military Store Department infrastructure in Fort Britomart consisted of the following; [69]

Fort Britomart 1860s
A Scene at Fort Britomart, Auckland, 1860s. Shows soldiers from the Imperial; the Sir George Grey Special Collections in the Auckland City Library
  • No 1 Store – A generous 65ft x 60ft building with an estimated storage capacity of 1000 Utilised at the “Receiving Store,” it is the store that all inwards goods are received, sorted and classified before distribution to customer units or placed into storage into other stores for later use.
  • No 2 Store – A bulk store for all manner of goods from scythes to swords, including in-numerable bales of grey blankets
  • No 3 Store – Clothing and necessities store for regimental for the 13 different corps in the colony. At the time uniforms were provided to men at one-third of the cost for which they were available from civilian vendors.
  • No 4 Store – Hospital stores and manner of necessaries, comforts or luxuries for sick soldiers.
  • No 5 Store – The delivery store where goods as pocked and addressed for the delivery to customers. Also serving as a store for trophy weapons captured during the war. Captured weapons were all carefully labelled, waiting to be claimed by the men who secured them when the war was over.
  • No 6 Store – Armoury for artillery stores and small arms such as rifles.
  • No 7 Store – Used for artillery fittings for 6Lb and 12Lb Armstrong batteries of the Imperial forces.
  • No 8 Store – The packing store, where tradesmen such as carpenters and painters prepare and pack goods for delivery.
  • No 9 Store – Reception store for camp equipage returned from regiments, and for its inspection and refurbishment to make it ready for reissue. This store also included an armourers workshop responsible for the repair and cleaning of rifles, swords, and other warlike implements. This building also included quarters for the twenty-five men of the Military Store Department
  • Magazines – Located in Albert Barracks and consisting of several buildings surrounded by a stone wall, the magazines held the entire supply of ammunition for the army in New Zealand. Stocks were held as either prepared cartridges (four and a half million rounds in March 1864) or as components such as shot and powder. Constructed of arched brick the magazines resembled strong rooms with the ammunition packed in cases and barrels on racks on each side with a narrow passage between the stock. Designed to be intrinsically safe within the walls of the magazine, with all nails and tools were made from copper so that every precaution was taken to prevent sparks and explosions. Magazine keepers were hand-picked, and the slightest sign of unsteadiness or neglect of duty resulted in instant dismissal.
Fort Britomart Map

Military Store Department operations were not only restricted to Auckland but across the country were ever Imperial troops were serving. Embedded in Regiments, Stores Conductors provided the link between Regimental Quartermasters and the Store Department.  Hamley and his deputy Macduff would spend a considerable time in the field supervising stores distribution. An example being in March 1864 when McDuff personally oversaw the distribution of blankets, clothing and necessities to troops and Te Awamutu during the Waikato campaign.[70] During the Taranaki Campain, the strength of the Military Store Department in New Plymouth in June 1863 was 1 Staff and 3 Sergeants.[71]

By 1866 the conflict in New Zealand had reached a stage where colonial forces were conducting the bulk of military operations, resulting in a drawdown and withdrawal of Imperial units. As the Imperial commitment decreased with the departure of five Imperial Regiments in 1866, the Military Store Department also had to reduce and optimise its operations. The reduction of troops necessitated the closing of its provincial Depots such as the Depot in Whanganui in March of 1867, and its stores returned to Auckland.[72] [73] With the departure of four more regiments in 1867, the closure of the Tauranga Depot soon followed.[74]  The final Imperial Regiment would depart New Zealand in February 1869.[75] [76]

The dismantling of Fort Britomart had commenced in January 1869, with all the military content of Fort Britomart and Albert Barracks belonging to the Imperial Government, such as guns, ammunition and stores shipped to the United Kingdom on the SS Himalaya. [77] With the withdrawal of Imperial Forces completed by July 1870,[78] and the full responsibility for defence matters handed over to the New Zealand Colonial Defence Force.[79] Defence store-keeping responsibility was handed over to the Colony’s Defence Stores under the control of the Colonial Storekeeper, Captain John Mitchell.[80] [81]  Transfers of equipment on a cost recovery basis to the New Zealand Forces was facilitated, with the surplus was either disposed of by tender or redistributed around the empire. [82] [83]

Fort Britomart 1860s
A Scene at Fort Britomart, Auckland, 1860s. Shows soldiers from the Imperial; the Sir George Grey Special Collections in the Auckland City Library

After 32 years of Colonial service, Hamley with the exception of the Imperial officer remaining to pay pensioners was the last remaining Imperial Officer in New Zealand to return to England.[84]  Hamley would continue to be employed in Ordnance related services, serving in Ireland, Chatham. The War Office, Dover, and Aldershot retiring with the honorary rank of Major General.

In 1870 the Military Store Department, the Commissariat and the Military Train were amalgamated into one organisation called the Control Department. From the perspective of the Military Store Department, it was a disastrous and ill thought out experiment in combined logistics, leading to the amalgamation been reversed in 1876 with the Military Store Department renamed the Ordnance Store Department, which in turn would after several name changes became the Royal Army Ordnance Corps in 1918.[85]

In conclusion, the Military Store Department served with distinction during the New Zealand wars. The story of the Military Store Department is the story of Major Joseph Osbertus Hamley. Hamley progressed through the ranks from being an 18-year-old in the Ordnance Department in Sydney to Deputy Ordnance Storekeeper in Wellington in 1847 and then the head of the Military Store Department during the crucial war years of the 1860’s. Newspaper articles of the period are full of praise for Hamley and his skilful leadership of his department and few if any find any fault with him. This article provides an introduction into Hamleys Military Store Department, which as an organisation unfairly overshadowed by the much larger and more well-known Commissariat is deserving of having its story told and further research is required to understand the full story of this exceptional man and the organisation he managed.

Copyright © Robert McKie 2018

Notes:

[1] Robert Curran, “Ordnance Stores and the Ordnance Storekeeper in the Colony of New South Wales,”  http://users.tpg.com.au/borclaud/ranad/ordnance_storekeeper.html#imp.

[2] A.H. Fernyhough, History of the Royal Army Ordnance Corps 1920-1945 (Royal Army Ordnance Corps, 1958), IX.

[3] Curran, “Ordnance Stores and the Ordnance Storekeeper in the Colony of New South Wales”.

[4] ” Old Sydney,” Truth (Sydney, NSW: 1894 – 1954), 4 August 1912.

[5] “Government Notice,” Sydney Herald, 3 July 1840.

[6] “Letter from Charles Logie Colonial Storekeeper, Bay of Islands to Willoughby Shortland, Esquire, Acting Colonial Secretary Item Id R23629593, Record No 1840/76 (Wellington: Archives New Zealand),”  (1840).

[7] MNZM  Gerald J Elliott, “British Regiments in New Zealand 1840-1847,”  http://ellott-postalhistorian.com/articles/80th-96th-99th-Regiments.pdf.

[8] Major J.S Bolton, A History of the Royal New Zealand Army Ordnance Corps (Trentham: RNZAOC, 1992).

[9] Una Platts, The Lively Capital, Auckland 1840-1865 (Christchurch: Avon Fine Prints, 1971), Non-fiction, 24.

[10] 158Adam Davis, “The Imperial Garrison in New Zealand, 1840-1870 with Particular Reference to Auckland” (University of Bedfordshire, 2004).

[11] “Tender for Supply of Straw,” New Zealander,  Volume 1, Issue 41, 14 March 1846.

[12] “Communication with the Interior “, New Zealander, Volume 2, Issue 69, 26 September 1846.

[13] “Sealed Tenders,” Wellington Independent, Volume II, Issue 149 1847.

[14] “Pukeahu National War Memorial Park, Law and Order and the Military,”  https://mch.govt.nz/pukeahu/park/pukeahu-history-7.

[15] “Freehold Allotment of Land,” Lyttelton Times, Volume V, Issue 259,, 25 April 1855.

[16] “Promotions and Appointments,” New Zealand Spectator and Cooks Strait Guardian, Volume VIII, Issue 772, 25 December 1852

[17] Hamley has first arrived in New Zealand in 1847 as the ordnance Clerk in Wellington.

[18] “Projected Departure of Mr Hamley,” Wellington Independent, Volume XXV, Issue 3017, 9 July 1870.

[19] War Officer Circular 139 Dated 15 September 1857. J.M. War office Bannatyne, Royal Warrants, Circular, General Orders and Memoranda, Issued by the War Office and Horse Guards, Aug. 1856- July 1864 (1864), 302.

[20] Brigadier A H Fernyhough, A Short History of the Royal Army Ordnance Corps (First Edition)

(RAOC Trust 1965), 14.

[21] Arthur Forbes, A History of the Army Ordnance Services (London: The Medici society, ltd., 1929), 149.

[22] “Commissions Granted to Officers Serving in the Military Store Department,” London Gazette No 22567, 19 November 1861, 4642-45.

[23] “Military Store Detachment – Promotions,” London Gazette No 22545, 18 July 1862, 3584.

[24] Fernyhough, History of the Royal Army Ordnance Corps 1920-1945, ix.

[25] Forbes, A History of the Army Ordnance Services, 41.

[26] James Belich, The New Zealand Wars and the Victorian Interpretation of Racial Conflict (Auckland, New Zealand: Auckland University Press, 2015 This edition 2015, 2015), Bibliographies, Non-fiction, 125-26.

[27] Davis, “The Imperial Garrison in New Zealand, 1840-1870 with Particular Reference to Auckland,” 79.

[28] Colonel H.G Hart, “Hart’s Army Lists – 1839-1915,” National Library of Scotland,, https://digital.nls.uk/british-military-lists/archive/100739612.

[29] “Matters Military “, New Zealand Herald, Volume I, Issue 247, 27 August 1864.

[30] Plummer had arrived in New Zealand in 1842 as an Ordnance Clerk in Auckland from the New South Wales Ordnance Office.  Passed away 4 March 1859, at the age of 39 years

[31] Served in New Zealand from 1847 until 1870. Remained in Government service after returning to the United Kingdom and retired after more than forty-two years of service as Commissary General with the honorary rank of Major General.Una Platts, Nineteenth Century New Zealand Artists: A Guide & Handbook (Christchurch, N.Z.: Avon Fine Prints, 1980, 1980), Bibliographies, Non-fiction, Collective biography.

[32] Second in command of the department who volunteered his services for New Zealand at the beginning of the war. Promoted to Assistant Superintendent of Stores on 2 August 1862

[33] Never appointed D.A.S.S, was only appointed acting D.A.S.S locally after the death of Rainsford.

[34] Departed England on the Norwood January 1861. “Continuation of Journal of Events to Jan 19,” Nelson Examiner and New Zealand Chronicle, Volume XX, Issue 9, 26 January 1861.

[35] Arrived 6 March 1861 on the Norwood “Shipping Intelligence, Poort of Auckland,” Daily Southern Cross, Volume XVII, Issue 1380, 5 March 1861.

[36] Joined the MSD at Hong Kong November 1862  “Martime Record,” New Zealander, Volume XVIII, Issue 1741, 12 November 1862.

[37] Passed away 15 April 1864 “Military Funeral,” New Zealander, Volume XX, Issue 2104, 30 April 1864.

[38] Departed United Kingdom in the Ship African to take charge of the military stores on the outward voyage to New Zealand April 1861 “English Shipping,” Wellington Independent Volume XVI, Issue 1518, 30 April 1861.

[39]  In 1864 Marvin was employed in the demands office, responsible for maintaining the proper proportion of stores to meet the requirements of the army, either by obtaining the stores from England or purchasing them in the local market. Left the department in 1866 and returned to the UK “Military Items,” Daily Southern Cross, Volume XXII, Issue 3101, 25 June 1867.

[40] Arrived on Ship Golden City with Timbrell and White March 1864 “Naval and Military Extracts,” Colonist, Volume VII, Issue 665, 11 March 1864.

[41] “Military Items,” Daily Southern Cross, Volume XXIV, Issue 3390, 28 May 1968.

[42] “Naval and Military Extracts.”

[43] Ibid.

[44] In charge of Issues, joined the department from Tasmania at the beginning of the war, completed service with the department in 1867″Military Items.”

[45] completed service with the department in 1868 “Military Intelligence,” Taranaki Herald, Volume XVI, Issue 816, 14 March 1868.

[46] Clerk in the Military Store Department. 1860 – Chapman’s New Zealand Almanac – New Zealand Official Directory,  (The University of Auckland Library, 1860), 164.

[47] In control of the finance department. “Matters Military “, New Zealand Herald, Vol 1 Issue247, 27 August 1864.

[48] Clerk in the Military Store Department. 1860 – Chapman’s New Zealand Almanac – New Zealand Official Directory, 164.

[49] Bower arrived in Auckland in 1857, joined the Military Store Department, in which he remained until the outbreak of the Waikato War. The Cyclopedia of New Zealand. Vol. 6. Taranaki, Hawkes Bay, Wellington Provincial Districts: Industrial, Descriptive, Historical, Biographical Facts, Figures, Illustrations,  (Cyclopedia Company, 1908), 308.

[50] Department ledger keeper. “Matters Military “.

[51] Performed the general duties of a clerk. Ibid.

[52] Armourer attached to the MSD at Britomart Barracks 1863 “Police Court,” New Zealander, Volume XIX, Issue 1897, 18 June 1863.

[53] Gunsmith working as a contractor to the MSD, at Britomart Barracks 1863. Ibid.

[54]  In Charge of the Powder Magazine Mount Albert for three and a half years “Coroners Inquest,” New Zealander, Volume XXI, Issue 2215, 5 September 1864.

[55] Engaged as Armourer Sergeant MSD Britomart Barracks.  ibid.

[56] Found drowned, near the Queen-street Wharf, on the 3rd July 1862, formerly of the Royal Artillery, and latterly employed in the Military Store Department. “Died,” New Zealander, Volume XVIII, Issue 1701,, 5 July 1862.

[57] “Matters Military “.

[58] Bolton, A History of the Royal New Zealand Army Ordnance Corps, 38.

[59] Terry Shattock, “Unpublished Work on New Zealand War Medals,” (2018).

[60] “Deaths,” Daily Southern Cross, Volume XXXII, Issue 5288, 23 September 1876.

[61] “Military Funeral,” New Zealand Herald, Volume I, Issue 254, 5 September 1864; ibid.

[62] “Matters Military “.

[63] Fernyhough, History of the Royal Army Ordnance Corps 1920-1945, ix.

[64] “The New Military Store Staff Corps,” Daily Southern Cross, Volume XXII, Issue 2713, 28 March 1866.

[65] Horse Guards Adjutant-General, Dress Regulations for the Army (London: Printed under the Superintendence of Her Majesty’s Stationery Office,, 1864), 116-18.

[66] Julia Millen, Salute to Service: A History of the Royal New Zealand Corps of Transport and Its Predecessors, 1860-1996 (Wellington: Victoria University Press, 1997, 1997), Bibliographies, Non-fiction, 24-25.

[67] “The Role of the Commissariat During the Waikato Campaign, 1863 – 1864,” http://www.soldiersofempire.nz/the-role-of-the-commissariat-during-the-waikato-campaign-1863—1864.html.

[68] Davis, “The Imperial Garrison in New Zealand, 1840-1870 with Particular Reference to Auckland,” 131.

[69] “Fort Britomart,” New Zealand Spectator and Cook’s Strait Guardian, Volum XIX, Issue 1942, 12 March 1864.

[70] “Te Awamutu,” New Zealand Herald, Volume I, Issue 124, 6 April 1864

[71] “Taranaki. The Kaitake Pa Shelled, Abandonment of Tataraimaka, Withdrawal of the Troops (from Our Special Correspondent) New Plymouth June 29,” Daily Southern Cross, Volume XIX, Issue 1885, 1 August 1863.

[72] “Wanganui,” Daily Southern Cross, Volume XXIII, Issue 3003, 11 March 1867.

[73]  The Whanganui Depot had been established by Assistant Superintendent of Stores A.C. Macduff in 1864.   “Tenders for Supply of Straw,” New Zealand Herald, Volume II, Issue 344, 19 December 1864.

[74] “Page 2 Advertisements Column 5,” New Zealand Herald, Volume IV, Issue 1079, 30 April 1867.

[75] A. H. McLintock, “British Troops in New Zealand,”  http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/en/1966/british-troops-in-new-zealand

[76] “The Troops and the Home Government,” Daily Southern Cross, Volume XXV, Issue 3643, 23 March 1869.

[77] “Dismantling of Fort Britomart,” Daily Southern Cross, Volume XXV, Issue 3616, 19 February 1869.

[78] “Projected Departure of Mr Hamley,” Daily Southern Cross, Volume XXVI, Issue 4007, 25 June 1870.

[79] Garry Clayton, The New Zealand Army: A History from the 1840’s to the 1990s ([Wellington, N.Z.]: New Zealand Army, 1990, 1990), Non-fiction, 26.

[80] “Militia and Volunteer Appointments,” Daily Southern Cross, Volume 2075, Issue XX, 14 March 1864 1864.

[81] Bolton, A History of the Royal New Zealand Army Ordnance Corps, 49.

[82] “Page 1 Advertisements Column 5,” Daily Southern Cross, Volume XXV, Issue 3596, 27 January 1869.

[83] “The Daily Southern Cross,” Daily Southern Cross, Volume XXV, Issue 3595, 26 January 1869.

[84] “Projected Departure of Mr Hamley.”

[85] Fernyhough, A Short History of the Royal Army Ordnance Corps (First Edition) 16-17.


Australian Mobile Laundry Trailers

In the early years of the Second World War, the United Kingdom was unable to provide Australia with the necessary military hardware to equip a rapidly expanding Australian Army.  The following two articles; For Want of Clean Socks: The Australian Mobile Laundry Trailers and And More Clean Socks: The Australian Light Laundry Trailer by Australian military historian and authority on the technical history of vehicles and equipment,  Michael K Cecil, examine how Australian industry stepped up to provide the Australian Army Ordnance Corps with a Mobile Laundry capability. First published in the Australian  Khaki Vehicle Enthusiasts Newsletter the KVE News of March 2013 these articles are Published with the permission of the author, Michael K Cecil.Copyright Michael K Cecil

For Want of Clean Socks: The Australian Mobile Laundry Trailers

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Laundry the hard way: scrubbing by hand in a basin of water.

Keeping clothing and bedding clean is only second in importance to good food and clean water when it comes to maintaining an Army’s health and morale. To this end, Laundry Units have been an integral part of the Australian Army’s Order of Battle since the First World War. But the early days of the Second World War heralded a change from the semi-static trench warfare of the First World War to a much more mechanised and fluid war – a war on wheels and tracks where gains or losses might be measured in tens of kilometres in a day. Any unit operating in a forward area had best be prepared to move quickly in response to changes in the tactical situation.

Mobile laundry facilities were first given serious consideration by the 2nd Australian Imperial Force (2AIF) in mid-1940, and by the Australian Military Forces (AMF) later the same year. Initial equipment was to be provided by purchase from Britain in line with the policy of adopting British Army standardised equipment wherever possible. However, Britain was unable to supply the laundry equipment in a timely manner or in the quantities required, so the Army turned to local industry to bridge the gap.

By late 1940, orders had been placed for the supply of various commercially available laundry equipment, in order to assemble a pilot model mobile laundry for trials. Several Australian companies from across the nation were contracted – Robert Bryce for the washing machine, Robert Lilley and Co. for the hydro-extractor and the soap and soda dissolver, Burtons Ltd for the tumble dryer, Cameron and Sutherland supplied centrifugal pumps, and a clarifier was supplied by the Perth-based firm Boltons Ltd. An entirely new device, a continuous drying machine, was being designed by the Land Headquarters Experimental Workshop, who would also assemble the pilot model laundry trailers. Power for each complete laundry was to be supplied by a 25kva, 415 Volt, three-phase AC generator mounted on a four wheel trailer. This was already an issue item, so procuring one for the pilot model laundry did not present a problem.

The equipment had all arrived at the workshop by the close of July 1941, except for the trailers. These were in extremely short supply owing to a higher priority demand for machinery trailers. The workshop went ahead and began assembling the laundry as a static unit – at least the components could be tested and their inter-relationship could be worked out within the trailer’s known dimensions in the interim.

And they were desperately needed. By February 1941, sixteen mobile laundry units were allowed for on the Australian Army’s Order of Battle – six for the 2nd AIF, and ten for a fully mobilised AMF, each one attached to an individual higher formation. Of those for the 2nd AIF, 5 were needed overseas. The 8 th Infantry Division in Malaya were in the greatest need, so the pilot model laundry – still not mounted on trailers – was sent to Malaya, along with some additional commercially available equipment, to provide a static laundry facility. Tropical conditions were already proving to be particularly hard on troops, and regular changes of clothing and bed linen helped keep tropical diseases, particularly skin rashes, in check.

By the time the pilot model’s equipment left for Malaya in September 1941, the mobile laundry design was well advanced. In anticipation of receiving trailers, contracts for the supply of the various major components were issued to suppliers. There was even a contract for the woven rattan trolley baskets, with Lawries Ltd engaged to manufacture enough sets for 11 mobile laundries.

Assembly of the first mobile laundry was to be undertaken by Robert Lilley and Co., but the supply of the trailers was still proving something of a problem. It was overcome by supplying machinery trailers that then had to be converted: hardly an ideal solution, but the only one available under the prevailing circumstances. The stripped machinery trailers were delivered to Lilleys in late April, 1942.

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A Mobile Hospital laundry set up, with the boiler trailer set at right angles to the other 4 trailers. The trailer sides are dropped to the horizontal and used as the walkways and working area. The boiler trailer is the specially built McGrath model with the stepped bed construction to provide maximum height for the vertical boiler. AWM140751. Copyright expired.

By mid June 1942, good progress was being made on the construction of the pilot model mobile laundry at Robert Lilley and Co in West Melbourne. Trailer brake modifications were well advanced at Patons Brakes, and the McGrath Trailer Co had completed a new trailer specifically for the boiler assembly after the converted machinery trailer proved unsatisfactory. In anticipation of successful trials, contracts had also been placed with various manufacturers for laundry components, such was the urgent need to supply completed laundries to field units. The contractors list was a veritable ‘who’s who’ of the Australian light manufacturing industry at the time: Andrew & Higgs, Gordon Brothers, Lawries Ltd, Johnsons Tyne Foundry, and L Horscroft & Co., to name a few.

A fully equipped divisional mobile laundry consisted of 9 trailers of equipment, each one towed by a 3- ton truck or lorry. There were four washing machine trailers, two boiler and feed water trailers, two trailers equipped with a generator and tumble dryer (the dedicated generator trailer had been abandoned in favour of combining it with a dryer in a more compact layout), and a continuous drying room trailer. They were designed to be parked in a line and interconnected by the various pipe work and electrical cabling. The trailers’ lower sides were designed to fold out horizontally to provide working room and facilitate movement of staff and trolleys laden carrying washing between trailers. The upper wire mesh sides were hinged at the top, allowing them to be raised to the horizontal to provide an all round awning over the workspace.

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Feeding the laundry boiler to provide hot water and steam for washing, and heat for the continuous dryer. The boiler had the versatility to be fired by wood or, in the tropics where dry wood was not available, quickly converted to a petrol-fed ‘hydra burner’. AWM055382 Copyright expired.

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Baskets full of linen waiting to be washed. A mobile laundry’s work was never done! The near trailer houses the drum-type washing machine and to its right, a ‘hydro-extractor’ is being loaded from the trolley basket. The hydro-extractor was a machine that performed the ‘spin’ cycle of a modern washing machine. AWM026376. Copyright expired.

The Unit was manned by 3 officers and 118 other ranks, and the washing capacity was 400 pounds weight (181 kilograms) of dry clothing and linen per hour. Manning was based upon a sustained operation of two 8 hour shifts per day, 6 days per week, but greater output was possible if operated with more staff on a three shift rotation. For attachment to hospitals, a Hospital Mobile Laundry Unit was created. This was essentially a ‘half laundry’, consisting of five trailers: 2 washing machine, 1 each boiler and generator/tumble dryer trailer, and a drying room.

By early 1943, mobile laundry equipment manufactured by Australian industry was flowing to field units. Divisional Units were attached to higher formations located across Australia and in New Guinea, and Hospital laundry units were taking over from the older and far less efficient technology being employed at General Hospitals and Casualty Clearing Stations in Northern Australia and New Guinea.

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A ‘flat head’ V8 working hard to spin the generator to provide all the power needs of the Mobile Laundry Unit. The other end of the same trailer housed a tumble dryer unit. AWM027631. Copyright expired

While these large capacity laundries were hard at work satisfying the never-ending requirements for clean linen and uniforms in larger formations and medical facilities, experience in the tropics during 1942 had demonstrated a need to constantly provide front line troops with clean clothes whenever possible, both for health and morale reasons. But the Mobile and Hospital laundries were just too far in the rear and too unwieldy to be safely moved further into the combat zone. Consequently, there was a desperate need for a lighter, more compact laundry for deployment as far forward into the combat zone as possible. Consequently, there was a desperate need for a lighter, more compact laundry for deployment as far forward into the combat zone as possible. The following article covers the Australian ‘Light Laundry’,

 

And More Clean Socks: The Australian Light Laundry Trailer

While the multi-trailer Mobile and Hospital laundries served the rear areas well, there was still a desperate need for a lighter, more compact laundry for deployment as far forward into the combat zone as possible. Troops operating anywhere need to maintain their clothes and equipment, but suffice to say, combat conditions often preclude anything more than the most basic of attention to this. While troops could survive quite well operating in the dry conditions of the Middle East, Greece and North Africa, the tropics meant dealing with a whole new regime of endlessly wet, muddy and humid conditions, together with the prevalence of some debilitating tropical diseases. Such conditions could rapidly reduce an army’s fighting effectiveness. Hence, the provision of clothes washing and decontamination facilities for front line troops and forward medical facilities such as Casualty Clearing Stations became almost as important as good food and shelter.

To provide washing facilities, the mobile showering unit, wholly mounted in a ¼ ton truck, was invented. To wash and decontaminate their clothes, the Australian Light Laundry was devised. The design work commenced in earnest in December 1942, and a pilot model was put together during January 1943. It was a somewhat radical design, as it dispensed with the steam pressure boiler altogether, opting for a direct-fired water heater to provide the hot water directly to the washing machine. This had the advantage that a qualified pressure vessel (boiler) attendant was not required: the simple system could be operated by almost anyone with a minimum of training. The drying system was also a departure from the conventional, as it too used a system of direct firing to heat the air exchanger that forced heated air into the tumble dryer. The complete laundry was mounted on a single four-wheeled 14 foot x 7 foot flat bed trailer. Initial trials of the pilot model during January and February 1943 proved the rugged simplicity of the design.

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The Light Laundry (Aust) used a radical design to achieve compactness, but not sacrifice efficiency. Built by L. Horscroft, they were an instant success in forward areas. (Image reproduced from the MGO Equipment Memorandum)

The US Forces had also come to the realisation that a light mobile laundry was needed, but when shown the Australian pilot model, expressed some dismay at its unconventional features. The US Army Services of Supply (USASOS) opted for a different, more conventional design much to the disappointment of the Australian authorities. This design, which utilised a conventional 100 psi steam pressure boiler, was to be manufactured in Australia under the Reciprocal Lease Lend agreement. By refusing to standardise, Australian industry would effectively be required to split their efforts and produce two light laundry designs in parallel. Australian authorities considered this division a waste of precious manufacturing resources, but the USASOS were not to be swayed.

The Light Laundry (Aust) was geared toward the washing needs of a small hospital or casualty clearing station of up to 200 beds. With this capability, it could also be used for the washing and decontamination of the clothing of front line units when withdrawn to secure areas a short distance behind the lines. In addition to consumables such as soap and fuel, all the Light Laundry (Aust) needed was a reliable supply of water. Delivery of water to the washer and water heater was handled by a small petrol engine driven pump which was included as part of the laundry’s basic equipment.

The oil-fired water heater provided hot water to the washing machine, with the residual heat used to provide the primary supply of warm air to the tumble dryer. A booster burner was also provided to heat the air-exchanger for times when the water heater was not in full operation. Power to operate the dryer and washer was provided by a 10hp Ford petrol engine connected to a counter-shaft running the full length of the trailer. Flexible couplings enabled any one part of the system to be temporarily disengaged, such as when emptying or filling the dryer or washing machine, and power was transferred from the countershaft by belts and pulleys. The fully integrated system was designed to wash 60 lbs dry weight of clothing per hour, but early trials exceeded all expectations by consistently processing more than 70 lbs per hour, and an experienced crew could complete more than 80 lbs per hour for short periods if needed.

With the success of the pilot model, and in anticipation of an early delivery of the production equipment, Army Headquarters authorised the addition of 22 Light Mobile Laundry Units onto the Order of Battle in February 1943. The units were designed to operate with any type of formation or unit as required, and were manned by members of the Australian Army Ordnance Corps (AAOC). To equip them, contracts were raised with L Horscroft and Co. for 25 Light Laundries (Aust) in April 1943, which was later raised to 40. L. Horscroft and Co. were experienced in the manufacture of laundry and oven equipment, and were already handling several military contracts for cleaning and drying equipment, including ovens for heating explosives. Within a few months, Light Mobile Laundry Units AAOC were in operation within Australia and on their way to several locations in New Guinea.

The Light Laundry (Aust) was one of the more successful collaborative projects undertaken by Australian industry during the Second World War. From the Army’s articulation of the requirement in late 1942, it took only until mid-1943 to equip, raise and deploy the new units into forward areas. Truly a fantastic effort.

Copyright Michael K Cecil

 

Biographical Details Michael K Cecil

Michael K. Cecil was born in Melbourne, Australia in 1955. His tertiary studies were at Monash University (Clayton campus) where he graduated with two degrees: a Batchelor of Science with Honours and a Batchelor of Arts. He later studied at Canberra Institute of Technology, where he graduated with a Certificate IV in Museum Practice.

Following graduation from Monash University, he held various positions in both the public service and in private consulting. These included research assistant to the ‘Atlas of Victoria’ project, various tertiary teaching positions, and technical administration appointments.

Always passionate about history, he has been researching Australian military history – particularly the technical history of vehicles and equipment – since the early 1970s. This translated into publication of articles in the late 1980s, and his first book in the early 1990s.