Ammunition Technician Origins

From the formation of the New Zealand Ordnance Corps in the early years of the First World War, the Corps has been the primary agency for the supply and maintenance of weapons, munitions and other military equipment. An essential commodity requiring specialised skills, munitions were the responsibility of the Ammunition Technician Trade group.  The requirement for the safe storage, inspection and distribution of munitions had existed in New Zealand from the earliest years of the nation. It was not until the 1890s with the manufacture of  advanced Small Arms Ammunition types in New Zealand that a specialist was employed to conduct the proof testing and oversee the production of small arms ammunition. This article will examine the initial manufacture of Small Arms Ammunition in New Zealand and the specialist who laid the foundations for the modern Ammunition Technician Trade.

For many years in early Colonial New Zealand, ammunition and explosives were imported in from the United Kingdom and Australia. Powder magazines were established in the main centers, and Magazine keepers appointed. Any specialist expertise required for the handling and storage for these stocks would have been provided by qualified and experienced individuals from the British Military Stores Department (Until 1870) and Royal Artillery and Engineer officers attached to the New Zealand Forces, who would provide expertise on an as required basis.

In 1885 the Russians repositioned elements of their naval fleet into the North Pacific establishing a naval base at Vladivostok, creating for British Imperial possessions The “Russian Scare” of 1885. It was thought that Tsar Alexander had ambitions to expand his empire. Feeling vulnerable at the edge of the British Empire, the New Zealand Government embarked on a programme of fortification construction and urgently sought independent sources of supply for ammunition to become independent of the supplies from Britain. With the encouragement of the government, Major John Whitney established Whitney & Sons as an ammunition manufacturing company in Auckland, with additional investors this company became the Colonial Ammunition Company (CAC) in 1888, not only the first ammunition manufacture in New Zealand but the first in Australasia. Entering into a contract with the New Zealand Government for the production of small arms ammunition, the deal was that government would provide the powder with the CAC providing the components for the manufacture of complete cartridges. The Governments retained the right to inspect and conduct quality control inspection on each batch before acceptance by the New Zealand Forces. The testing regime was a simple one which consisted of testing only a small percentage of a batch by test firing. The results of the test were based on the performance of this percentage that the ammunition is accepted or rejected.


Colonial Ammunition Company works on the lower slopes of Mount Eden in Normanby Road, Mount Eden, 1902.
Sir George Grey Special Collections, Auckland Libraries, 1-W1057.

With the production of .577 Snyder Ball Ammunition underway by 1890, the first testing, inspection and acceptance of the initial batches were conducted by Major John Pirie of the New Zealand Militia. Formerly a Major in the Guernsey Militia, Major Pirie has immigrated to New Zealand, becoming the Auckland District Musketry Instructor in 1881. Conducting inspections of manufactured ammunition until July 1891. From July 1891 responsibility ammunition inspection was then passed to the Officer Commanding of the Auckland District, which at the time was a Major Goring. In 1893 responsibility for the examination of ammunition passed to Lieutenant J E Hume of the Permanent Militia. Hume would continue to hold this responsibility in addition to his other duties until 1898.

By 1896 the New Zealand colony was mostly equipped with the .450 calibre Martini-Henry series of rifles and carbines. Ammunition was still provided under contract with the Colonial Ammunition Company but with additional stocks produced by the Kynoch ammunition company in the United Kingdom. The conditions of the original contract with CAC remained extant with the Government responsible for providing the powder and the CAC the components. As this system had been in place for some time, it was recognised that this division of responsibility was flawed. There had been many incidents of ammunition failure, but due to this procurement division, it was often difficult to attribute fault to any specific party. It was recommended by the Defence Department to Parliament that the CAC should be responsible for the entire end to end process for the manufacture of complete cartridges The Government would retain the right to examine and test all components (powder, caps and cases) and complete cartridge cases. Testing would be conducted by an official with the required training and experience for such work, given that no such individual existed in the colony at the time, one would have to be recruited.

Ballistic Chronograph

Ballistic Chronograph

During 1896/97 units from all over New Zealand continued to complain about the quality of the ammunition supplied to the Defence Force by CAC. Although CAC was contracted to be the sole source of supply of small arms ammunition, the powder was still provided by the Government from the United Kingdom. With the powder passing the same tests as powder supplied for the manufacture of UK manufactured ammunition. CAC continued to argue that the powder was not good, and attributed the failures of the ammunition chiefly to that cause.  Lacking the expertise to test the powder in New Zealand, five hundred rounds from each batch manufactured in 1896 was sent to the United Kingdom for proof and examination by Government experts. The proofing process attributed that the failure of the ammunition was not due to the powder but to irregularities in manufacture. With few facilities then available in New Zealand for the correct proofing of the specification of finished ammunition, testing equipment including velocity instruments such as Ballistic chronographs were ordered from the United Kingdom. As there was no individual in the Colonial Forces who possessed sufficient knowledge to set up and operated these instruments it fell onto the Chief of the Defence Force to as far as possible, personally supervise and set up the testing apparatus providing the necessary instruction until a suitably qualified individual could be recruited from the United Kingdom.

The CAC refused to accept the return of suspect stocks as they argued that as per the current contract it had passed the required tests and been approved by the Government ending their responsibility. The ammunition that was in store was to be used up and replaced by a competent and serviceable supply. It was accepted that the testing officers had done their testing conscientiously and that the percentage of rounds tested had been in accordance with the terms of the specification. But as the very existence of the colony might one day be at stake, it was imperative that every possible step should be taken to ensure a supply of reliable ammunition.  As the Government was bound by contract to obtain their supply of small-arms ammunition from CAC, the following recommendations were made;

  • CAC should supply their own powder and all component parts,
  • Production of the current “rolled case” pattern of ammunition be ceased as it was inherently “Rolled Cases” had ceased to be used by other Imperial forces and by switching production to the more reliable ” solid drawn” would bring the New Zealand Forces into line with the rest of the Imperial Forces.

Plate showing the construction of the Rifle Ball Mark III from “Treatise on Ammunition 1887”.

On the 67th of February 1898, a formal request was forwarded to the United Kingdom for the recruitment if a suitable Warrant Officer from the Royal Artillery to “ Take charge of the testing operations of Small Arms Ammunition and the supervision of the manufacture of the same”.

On the 6th of April 1898, Quartermaster Sergeant Instructor Arthur Duvall, Royal Garrison Artillery of the Artillery College was selected and took up the offer to be the Small ArmsTesting officer for the New Zealand Forces. To be promoted to 3rd Class Master Gunner on appointment it was to be a three-year engagement at a rate of Nine Shillings a day with free quarters or a £50 per annum housing allowance. Arriving in New Zealand in July 1898 Duvall was soon at work at the CAC premises at Mount Eden in Auckland.

Under the administrative command of the Officer Commanding No 1 Company Permanent Militia, Auckland Duvall was immediately put to work. With the introduction of the .303 Martini Enfield rifles in 1898, CAC had started production in 1898 of the Mark II C  and Mark IV .303 rounds. Providing a level of expertise never available before Duvall was holding the CAC to account and providing the Defence Force with a reliable product.

Coming under the command of Headquarters of the New Zealand Permanent militia in 1903, Duvall had his engagement with the New Zealand Forces extended by an additional three years in 1903 and then another three years in 1907. Duvall oversaw the introduction of the .303 Mark IV round in 1904.

CAC MAchinery

Machinery for the production of Military ammunition, CAC Factory Auckland 1903


Bullet making machinery at the Colonial Ammunition Company’s works, Mt Eden. Auckland War Memorial Museum, DU436.1243 C718.

Completing Twenty years service with the British Army in 1911, Duvall took his discharge and was immediately attested into the New Permanent Staff as an Honorary Lieutenant on the 26th of April 1912 and then promoted to Honorary Capitan on 1 April 1914.

With Honorary Captain Duvall overseeing the manufacture and testing of Small Arms Ammunition in Auckland, ensuring New Zealand was self-sufficient in the supply of Small Arms Ammunition. Moves were underway at Fort Ballance in Wellington to provide New Zealand with some self-reliance with artillery ammunition with the formation of the New Zealand Army Ordnance Section of the Royal New Zealand Artillery in 1915. The RNZA Ordnance Section was responsible for the refurbishment by cleaning, inspecting and refilling QF Casings, and inspecting and refurbishing in service propellant bags, and manufacturing new ones as required, resulting in considerable savings made instead of importing new items.

On the 10th of January 1918, Duvall was transferred from the Permanent Staff to the New Zealand Army Ordnance Department, graded as an Ordnance Officer Class 3 with the rank of Captain. His appointment as Testing Officer Small Arms Ammunition was renamed as Proof Officer, Small Arms Ammunition and it would be part of the Ordnance Corps Technical branch

On the 4th of July 1919 Duvall arrived at the premises of the CAC at about 930 am, after speaking to a member of his staff Mr B.E Lambert, Duvall then retired to the laboratory. At approximately 1040am Duval was found in the laboratory, deceased lying on his face with a service rifle across his body. In the Coroners report published on the 16th of July 1919, the coroner found that the cause of death was a gunshot wound, apparently self-inflicted, while in a state of nervous depression]. Duvall was interred with military honours at Purewa cemetery on 5 July 1919.

Despite the sudden death of Duvall, The Small Arms and Proof Office would remain as an essential component of the New Zealand Army ammunition supply chain until 1968 when the Colonial Ammunition Company shifted its operations to Austalia, and the Army ended its long relationship with the Colonial Ammunition Company.

Administrative control of the New Zealand Army Ordnance Section of the Royal New Zealand Artillery was passed to the New Zealand Army Ordnance Corps on its formation if 1917. Technical control of Artillery ammunition remained with the RNZA until 1946 when responsibility for all ammunition was handed over to the Inspection Ordnance Officers Branch of the NZAOC. The Inspecting Ordnance Officers Branch which had only consisted of a few staff officers during the interwar period rapidly expanded during the Second World War with Ammunition Depots established at Ngaruawahia, Waiouru, Makomako, Kuku Valley, Belmont, Mount Sommers, Alexandra, Glen Tunnel (Hororata) and Fairlie. The ordnance Ammunition trades consisted of;

  • Inspecting Ordnance Officers (Officers) and
  • Ammunition Examiners (Other ranks).

These roles remained extant until 1961 when following UK practice the following changes were made;

  • Chief Inspecting Ordnance Officer  became Chief Ammunition Technical Officer
  • Senior Inspecting Ordnance Officer became Senior Ammunition Technical Officer
  • District Inspecting Ordnance Officer became District Ammunition Technical Officer
  • Inspecting Ordnance Officer became Ammunition Technical Officer
  • Ammunition Examiner became Ammunition Technician

Over the next thirty years, the ammunition trades would mature into a highly specialised trade that on the amalgamation of the RNZAOC into the RNZALR in 1996 had a wide range of responsibilities including;

  • The inspection, storage and maintenance of all ammunition and explosives used by the Army
  • The conduct of technical trials on new ammunition,
  • The conduct investigations into ammunition incidents and accidents,
  • The disposal of unserviceable or obsolete ammunition
  • The management of Explosive Ordnance Devices and Improvised Explosive Devices.

By 1996 the Ammunition trades had progressed from rudimentary black powder magazines in the 19th century to the management of many modern ammunition natures. Although many individuals had been involved in the handling and storage of ammunition up to the appointment of Arther Duvall in 1898, Duvall stands out as the first individual specially trained and employed  solely in the field of ammunition management and as such deserves recognition as the founding member of what would in later years become the Ammunition Technician Trade.

Copyright © Robert McKie 2017


Primary Sources

Archives New Zealand/Te Rua Mahara o Te Kawanatanga Wellington Office
Military Personnel Files D.1/420/1 Arthur Duvall – Captain, New Zealand Army Ordnance Corps

NewZealand Gazette
Testing-Officer for Small-arms Ammunition appointed. New Zealand Gazette No 17 Page 412 28 February 1895

Appendices to the Journals of the House of Representatives (AJHR)
1896 H-19 Report on the Defence Forces of New Zealand
1897 H-19 Report on the Defence Forces of New Zealand
1898 H-19 Report on the Defence Forces of New Zealand

Auckland Star
“THE LABORATORY FATALITY,” Auckland Star, p. 4, 5 July 1919.
“CORONER’S INQUEST,” Auckland Star, vol. L, no. 168, 16 July 1919.

Secondary Sources

IPENZ, “Engineering Heritage of New Zealand,” IPENZ Engineers New Zealand, 11 December 2017. [Online]. Available: [Accessed 12 December 2017].
J. Osborne and P. Cregeen, “Martini Enfield Rifle MK I, I,” New Zealand Arms Register, 21 October 2010. [Online]. Available: [Accessed 13 December 2017].
J. Osborne and P. Cregeen, “Martini Enfield Rifle MK I, I,” New Zealand Arms Register, 21 October 2010. [Online]. Available: [Accessed 13 December 2017].
Osborne, “Chronology of the British & New Zealand Military .303” Cartridge,” 7 March 2012. [Online]. Available: [Accessed 13 December 2017].

The Legend of Saint Barbara

A patron saint is an individual who in the Christian tradition is considered to be the heavenly advocate for groups of the faithful (families, parishes, regions, countries).

The tradition of patron saints traces its origins back to the Roman Empire and the building of the first public churches. As many of these churches were built over the graves of martyrs, they were given the name of the martyr, with the expectation that the martyr would act as an advocate for the Christians who worshipped there.

By the Middle Ages, organisations began to adopt patron saints to seek the protection of heaven for the ordinary interests of the organisation and for the health of members of that organisation.

Adopting the tradition of the Royal Army Ordnance Corps, Saint Barbara was adopted as the Patron Saint of the RNZAOC.

Saint Barbara’s day is commemorated on the 4th of December.

The Legend of Saint Barbara

St. BarbaraLiving during the reign of the Roman Emperor Maximian,  (305-311) Saint Barbara was from Heliopolis in the Roman province of  Phoenice, which is now Baalbek in modern Lebanon. Living in the time when the Roman Empire was transitioning between paganism and Christianity, Barbara came from a wealthy merchant family following the beliefs of Roman polytheism.  Her father was a rich and well-known merchant named Dioscorus, who after the death of his wife devoted himself to his only daughter.

By all accounts, Barbara was not only extremely beautiful and also extremely intelligent and her father vowed to protect her from the outside world by imprisoning her in a tower, forbidding her to associate with anyone apart from teachers and servants who had instructions that she be taught how to worship to the pagan gods. The view from the tower was a picturesque one of wooded hills, rivers and fields covered in colourful flowers stretching as far as the eye could see. With such a view Barbara soon questioned the creation of such a beautiful world. Over time, Barbara became convinced that the idols she had been taught about were merely the work of human hands and could not have made the surrounding world. As she was reaching adulthood Dioscorus began to seek out suitors and potential husbands for his daughter. Refusing them all, she warned her father that she was seeking something else and that his insistence on marriage could forever damage their relationship.

Sensing some conflict in his daughter, Dioscorus allowed Barbara some freedom and hoped that by allowing her to leave the tower she would change her attitude. Using the opportunity to meet new people, Barbara was soon mixing with people from the emerging religion of Christianity.  Learning about the message of Jesus, the Holy Trinity and the Christian Church, Barbara was converted and baptized by a priest from Alexandria who to avoid detection was disguised as a merchant.

Accepting Barbara’s new freedom, but still not knowing that she had been baptized Dioscorus took the opportunity to depart on some business travels, leaving instructions for a  private bath-house to be built for his daughter. Originally planned to have only two windows, Barbara inspired by her new religion had the workers add in an additional window, to represent the Christian Holy Trinity. Barbara’s bathhouse became a place of healing, with many miracles occurred there. The 10-century scholar  St. Simeon Metaphrastes placed it on an even footing to the stream of Jordan.

Returning from his travels Dioscorus returned to find the bathhouse built to a different design and the news was broken to him by Barbara that she was rejecting the worship of his idols and that she had been baptized as a Christian. Upset with this revelation, knowing the shame it would bring on to him, Dioscorus fell into a fit of rage, taking his sword with the intention of striking Barbara.

Running away before her father could strike her, Barbara headed for the hills with her father in pursuit. Chasing after his daughter, Dioscorus pursuit was cut short when a hill blocked his way. According to legend the hill had opened up and hid Barbara within a crevice. Continuing to search for his daughter to no avail, Dioscorus sought the help of two local shepherds. The first, knowing where Barbara was denied any knowledge of her whereabouts, the second knowing of Dioscorus wealth and possible reward, betrayed Barbaras location to her father, for his betray legend has it that he was turned to stone and his flock was turned into locusts.



The Torture of Saint Barbara

Finding his daughter, Dioscorus locked her up whilst starving and beating her. Given that being a Christian was then a crime, Dioscorus had little choice but to hand Barbara over to the prefect of the city,  Martianus. With the cooperation of Dioscorus, Martianus continued with the beatings and torture. Refusing to renounce her Christian faith, Barbara prayed to Jesus. As the beatings continued during the day, each night her wounds were miraculously healed. Incested that her wounds were healing,  Martianus subjected her to new tortures to convince her to renounce the Christian faith. Refusing Barbar drew strength from her prayers and stood firm. These tortures were carried out in the public arena and as Barbara was being tortured a virtuous Christian woman in the crowd called Juliana took sympathy on Barbara.  Inspired by Barbara’s voluntary martyrdom on behalf of all Christians, Juliana denounced the torturers in a loud voice, resulting in her seizure and torture alongside Barbara.




The Execution of Saint Barabra

Both women were now being repeatedly tortured with their bodies were raked and wounded with hooks, and stripped naked and paraded through the city where they were greeted by derision and jeers.  Holding out and not forsaking their faith, Barbara continued to pray and legend has it that an angel appeared and covered their nakedness with a splendid robe and extinguished torches that were about to be used to burn the pair.


Tiring of the lack of progress with the torture, Martianus ordered the execution of the pair. Barbara and Juliana were beheaded on the 4th of December, with the final blow to Barbara delivered by Dioscorus. Another Christian, Valentinus buried Barbara with her tomb becoming the site of many miracles.  Dioscorus and Martianus were also punished, as it is said that shortly after the execution they were struck down and killed by lightning, seen by many as Gods revenge for the killings.


Barbara seems to have been canonized by the 7th century and her story introduced to Britain during the time of the Crusades.

Saint Barbara’s association with the lightning that killed her father established her association with lightning and fire. As Christianity became firmly established, Saint Barbara was invoked as a protectress against the perils of lightning. When gunpowder was introduced in the Western world, this led to her adoption as the patroness of artillerymen. Eventually, her patroness would be extended to many who were in danger of sudden death, including firefighters, sailors, armourers, military engineers, gunsmiths, tunnellers, miners and warehouse workers.

Given the Royal Army Ordnance Corps association with explosives and artillery, Saint Barbara was adopted as the Patron Saint of the RAOC, a tradition that was carried over to many of the Commonwealth Ordnance Corps including the RNZAOC.

A New Zealand Ordnance Connection to Saint Barbara

Surprisingly there is a connection between the New Zealand Ordnance Corps and Saint Barbara. During the Second World War, C Section of the New Zealand Divisional Ordnance Field Park and the NZ Advanced Ordnance Depot would spend a short time deployed in the vicinity Baalbek in modern-day Lebanon, which is the attributed as the place where St Barbara lived.

St. Barbara

Saint Barbara of Heliopolis of Phoenicia


Copyright © Robert McKie 2017