Since 1971, Ammunition Technical Officers (ATOs) and Ammunition Technicians (ATs) of the New Zealand Army have proudly worn the Flaming “A” Badge, a symbol of the dangerous and skilful nature of the AT trade. The AT trade evolved from managing powder magazines in the 19th century to managing the full range of ammunition and explosives available to the modern New Zealand Army. The Flaming “A” Badge is more than a symbol of the dangerous and skilful nature of the AT trade but an acknowledgement to those who wear it of their trade’s long and proud whakapapa.
In early Colonial New Zealand, Ammunition and explosives were imported from the United Kingdom and Australia. To safely store and distribute powder and shot, Powder magazines were established at Wellingtons Mount Cook and Auckland’s Mount Albert with specialist expertise required for the handling and storing of these stocks provided by qualified and experienced individuals from the British Military Stores Department and Royal Artillery and Engineer officers. As the Imperial Forces completed their withdrawal from New Zealand in 1870, full responsibility for New Zealand’s Magazines and Ammunition was passed to the Defence Stores Department.
From 1873 the powder magazines at Mount Albert and Mount Cook were replaced by new facilities at Auckland’s Mount Eden and Wellingtons Kaiwharawhara, both of which remained in use through to the 1920s. Supporting the dispersed Militia and Volunteer Forces, magazines were maintained by the Defence Stores Department at most provincial centres.
With the formation of the permanent Garrison Artillery in 1884, Frederick Silver and Robert George Vinning Parker, Sergeant Majors with considerable experience in the Royal Marine Artillery and Royal Garrison Artillery, then serving as constables in the Armed Constabulary, were transferred to the Garrison Artillery as instructors. Providing a solid base of experience, Silver and Parker would be instrumental in mounting much of New Zealand’s Garrison artillery, compiling books and manuals and, in conjunction with the Defence Storekeeper managing the stocks of Artillery ammunition.
With the government’s encouragement, Major John Whitney established Whitney & Sons as an ammunition manufacturing company in Auckland. With additional investors, this company became the Colonial Ammunition Company (CAC) in 1888, not only the first ammunition manufacturer in New Zealand but the first in Australasia. Entering into a contract with the New Zealand Government to produce Small Arms Ammunition (SAA), the deal was that government would provide the powder with the CAC providing the components for the manufacture of complete cartridges. The Governments retained the right to inspect and conduct quality control inspections on each batch before acceptance by the New Zealand Forces. The testing regime was a simple one which consisted of testing only a small percentage of a batch by test firing. The test results were based on the performance of this percentage that the ammunition is accepted or rejected.
With the production of .577 Snyder Ball Ammunition underway by 1890, the first testing, inspection and acceptance of the initial batches were conducted by Major John Pirie of the New Zealand Militia. Formerly a Major in the Guernsey Militia, Major Pirie immigrated to New Zealand, becoming the Auckland District Musketry Instructor in 1881 and conducting inspections of manufactured Ammunition until July 1891. From July 1891, responsibility for ammunition inspection was then passed to the Officer Commanding of the Auckland District, which at the time was a Major Goring. In 1893, Lieutenant J E Hume of the Permanent Militia was responsible for examining ammunition. Hume would continue to hold this responsibility in addition to his other duties until 1898.
On 6 February 1898, a formal request was placed on the United Kingdom for the recruitment of a suitable Warrant Officer from the Royal Artillery to “Take charge of the testing operations of SAA and the supervision of the manufacture of the same”. Quartermaster Sergeant Instructor Arthur Duvall, Royal Garrison Artillery of the Artillery College, was selected as the Small Arms Testing officer for the New Zealand Forces. To be promoted to 3rd Class Master Gunner on appointment, it was to be a three-year engagement at a rate of Nine Shillings a day with free quarters or a £50 per annum housing allowance. Arriving in New Zealand in July 1898, Duvall was soon at work at the CAC premises at Mount Eden in Auckland. Extending his engagement every three years, Duvall completed twenty years of service with the British Army in 1911. Taking his discharge in New Zealand, Duvall was immediately attested into the New Permanent Staff as an Honorary Lieutenant on 26 April 1912 and then promoted to Honorary Captain on 1 April 1914.
In 1902, Silver was discharged from the Artillery and was appointed as the Assistant Defence Storekeeper. While taking on the duties of Assistant Defence Storekeeper, Silver also retained responsibility for managing all the Artillery’s stores and ammunition. Following the implementation of the Defence Act 1909 and subsequent reorganisation, Silver transferred from the Defence Stores to the office of the Director of Artillery. He was appointed as Quartermaster (Honorary Lieutenant) into the post of Artillery Stores Accountant, retaining responsibility for all artillery stores and ammunition. Retiring in June 1913, Silver was replaced as Artillery Stores Accountant by Parker, who was promoted from Warrant Officer to Quartermaster (Honorary Lieutenant).
With the Colonial Ammunition Company in Auckland manufacturing SAA, thus allowing a measure of self-sufficiency, the same could not be said for artillery ammunition which all had to be imported from overseas. Parker conducted a cost-benefit analysis to assess the virtues of locally made-up artillery ammunition compared to imported items. Parker estimated that by cleaning and refilling casings, inspecting and refurbishing propellant bags, and manufacturing new ones as required, annual savings of £3,333 (2022 NZD$633,605) could be made. To achieve these savings, a recommendation that a specialist Royal New Zealand Artillery Ordnance Corps Section be established to manufacture and modify ammunition was made. General Godley approved the proposal in mid-1914, and on 1 March 1915, authority was granted under New Zealand Defence Forces General Order 90 to raise the New Zealand Army Ordnance Section with effect from 1 April 1915.
On 31 May 1917, regulations constituting the New Zealand Army Ordnance Department (NZAOD) and New Zealand Army Ordnance Corps (NZAOC), backdated to 1 February 1917, were approved and published in the New Zealand Gazette of 7 June 1917, concluding forty-eight years of service provided by the Defence Stores Department,
Administrative control of the New Zealand Artillery Ordnance Section was passed to the NZAOC, and Parker was commissioned as Captain in the NZAOD as the Inspector of Ordnance Machinery. However, his time in this post was short, as he retired on 30 September 1919.
On 10 January 1918, Duvall was transferred from the Permanent Staff to the NZAOD, graded as an Ordnance Officer Class 3 with the rank of Captain as the Proof Officer SAA. The post of Proof Officer SAA was to be a continuous appointment in the New Zealand Army ammunition supply chain until 1968, when the CAC shifted its operations to Australia, ending its long relationship with the New Zealand Army.
Experience during the 1914-18 war highlighted the need for specialist officers trained in the technical nature of ammunition. Undertaking several courses of instruction in the United Kingdom, Captain William Ivory, RNZA, returned to New Zealand at the end of 1919 to assume the role of Inspecting Ordnance Officer (IOO). Lieutenant A de T Nevill, RNZA, took the post of Acting IOO in 1925 to allow Ivory to undertake regimental duties within the RNZA, with Ivory reassuming the position of IOO on 2 January 1927. On Ivory’s retirement in 1933, Lieutenant Ivan Roberts Withell, RNZA, assumed the appointment of IOO, a role held until his death on 31 August 1946.
On the formation of the NZAOC in 1917, the Royal New Zealand Artillery (RNZA) Ordnance Section at Fort Ballance passed to NZAOC control, continuing with its task of storing, repairing, and refurbishing ammunition under the control of the RNZA. With The Kaiwharawhara Magazines closed in the early 1920s, Watts Peninsular on the north end of Wellingtons Miramar peninsular became the first large-scale ammunition depot of the NZAOC. The ammunition infrastructure consisted of 19 magazines, one store and a laboratory spread out across the peninsula at Shelly Bay, Kau Point, Mahanaga Bay, Fort Ballance and Fort Gordon. These were not purpose-built ammunition magazines but repurposed submarine mining and coastal artillery fortifications dating back to the 1880s. In the case of Kau Point and Forts Ballance and Gordon, the large six- and eight-inch disappearing guns had been removed in the early 1920s, and the gun pits roofed over, becoming ad-hoc magazines. This accommodation was far from ideal as temperature and moisture control could not be adequately controlled, resulting in potential damage t ammunition stocks.
A smaller Ammunition section was also maintained at Mount Eden in Auckland until 1929, when along with some staff from Fort Balance, the Mount Eden Ammunition Section was transferred to New Magazines at Hopuhopu Camp. Envisaged to be the principal ammunition depot for New Zealand, eleven magazines and a laboratory were constructed between 1925 and 1927. Built into the hillside to contain any blasts, the magazines were made of concrete, with double walls forming an inspecting chamber. The intent of the inspection chamber was for sentries to observe thermometers and adjust the ventilation to maintain the stock at optimal temperatures by consulting a chart.
The NZAOC Ammunition sections were civilianised in 1931 when nearly all of the NZAOC military staff were transferred to the Public Service as civilian staff at a lower rate of pay or placed on superannuation as the result of government budgetary restraints.
When New Zealand entered the Second World War in September 1939, the responsibility for ammunition was shared between the RNZA and the NZAOC.
- The Director of Artillery was responsible to the General Officer Commanding for.
- The provision and allocation of gun ammunition,
- The receipt, storage, and issue of gun ammunition and explosives other than small-arms ammunition
- The Director of Ordnance Services, assisted by the IOO and the SAA Proof Officer, were responsible to the Quartermaster-General for.
- The inspection and repair of gun ammunition,
- The provision, receipt, storage and distribution of small arms ammunition.
NZAOC Ammunition facilities and personnel shared by the RNZA and NZAOC in September 1939 consisted of.
- The IOO, Captain I.R Withell, RNZA
- The Proof Officer, SAA Mount Eden Auckland, Honorary Lieutenant J.W Fletcher, NZPS
- 19 Magazines, 1 Store, and an Ammunition Laboratory at Fort Ballance managed by
- an RNZA WO1 seconded to the NZAOC
- five members of the NZAOC civilian staff
- 11 Magazines and an Ammunition Laboratory at Hopuhopu Camp managed by
- an RNZA WO1 seconded to the NZAOC and
- two members of the NZAOC civilian staff.
- Single SAA Magazines at Trentham and Burnham Camps.
From 1940 as the New Zealand Army moved from a peacetime to a wartime footing, the Ammunition trade grew exponentially as new infrastructure was constructed to accommodate the extensive range of ammunition required for training and home defence, with Modern Explosive Store Houses built at.
- Burnham – 8 Magazines
- Ohakea – 6 Magazine
- Papakura (Ardmore)- 28 Magazines
- Hopuhopu and Kelms Road – 55 Magazines
- Waiouru – 45 Magazines
- Makomako – 39 Magazines
- Trentham (Kuku Valley) – 22 Magazines
- Belmont – 62 Magazines
- Glen Tunnel – 16
- Mount Somers – 10
- Fairlie – 9
- Alexandra – 9
In 1942 a conference of the QMG, DQMG2, AQMG5, COO, DCOO and IOO reset the wartime policy and organisation of New Zealand Military Ammunition services in which,
- The COO and the Ordnance Ammunition Group were responsible for the management and storage of ammunition
- the Chief IOO (CIOO) was responsible for all technical management and inspection of ammunition.
With the role of the IOO branch now defined, from January 1943, the establishment of the IOO Branch was steadily increased to more robust levels.
From mid-1945, discussions started taking place on the post-war shape of the NZAOC. Some thought was given to returning the NZAOC to its pre-war status as a predominantly civilian organisation. Reality prevailed, and the future of the NZAOC was assured as a permanent component of the post-war Army.
The Proposed establishment of NZAOC Ammunition units would see the first widespread use of Ammunition Examiner (AE) as the ammunition trade name. AEs had existed in the British Army since 1923, evolving from the trade of Military Laboratory Foreman that had been established in 1886. Although the Royal Army Ordnance Corps (RAOC) authorised the use of a specialist AE badge consisting of an ‘AE in Wreath’ in 1942, permission to wear this badge was not granted to New Zealand AEs.
The first New Zealand AE were in the 2nd New Zealand Expeditionary (2NZEF), where New Zealand Ordnance Corps (NZOC) AEs were included as part of the 2nd New Zealand Division NZASC Ammunition Company establishment. Little information is known about the 2NZEF AEs. They were likely recruited from within 2NZEF, given some rudimentary training by the RAOC and set to work.
From 1 June 1945, the Artillery Headquarters element responsible for managing Gun Ammunition, the Ammunition and Equipment Section, was transferred to the control of the Chief Ordnance Officer (COO), ending the RNZA roles in the management of ammunition that had existed since the 1880s and the employment of Parker and Silver. As a result of the transfer, 11 Officers and 175 Other Ranks of the Royal New Zealand Artillery were absorbed into the NZAOC establishment.
On 15 November 1945, the QMG directed that the care, maintenance, accounting and storage of all ammunition and explosives was the responsibility of the COO. Under the COO, these duties were to be undertaken by
- The IOO Section
- The NZAOC Ammunition Section
Under the CIOO, the IOO Section was responsible for.
- The control of all work on ammunition for all purposes other than accounting and storage,
- Maintenance of Ammunition and explosives in stock in a serviceable condition and ready for use,
- Provision of personnel for inspection and repair and for working parties to carry out repairs,
- Provision of all equipment and stores required for the inspection and repair of ammunition,
- Provision and accounting for Motor Transport necessary for the transport of stock for inspection and repair,
- Administration and control of Repair Depot Trentham,
- Maintenance of buildings at Repair Depot Trentham.
The NZAOC Ammunition Section was responsible for.
- The accounting, storage and care of ammunition and explosives,
- Maintenance or magazines areas and of buildings and services connected with the storage of ammunition and explosives,
- Administration of personnel of the IOO Section, while attached to ammunition depots concerning pay, rations, quarters, clothing and discipline,
- Transport arrangements for the movement of ammunition not connected with the inspection and repair of ammunition at depots.
The provision of suitably trained personnel was a constant problem for the CIOO. A course for IOOs was conducted over November/December 1945 to provide sufficient Officers to fill the IOO establishment. Graduates included
- Captain John Gordon Renwick Morley
- Captain Gerald Arthur Perry
- Lieutenant Heaphy
- Lieutenant W.G Dixon
- Lieutenant Eric Dudley Gerard
On 1 September 1946, Army Headquarters “Q” Branch underwent a significant reorganisation which included the formation of the New Zealand Electrical and Mechanical Engineers (NZEME) and the reorganisation of New Zealand’s Ordnance Services under the Director of Army Equipment (DAE) which became the senior NZAOC appointment.
Under the DAE, Ordnance Services were divided between the,
- COO, responsible for Headquarters New Zealand Ordnance Services, including the Provision Group
- CIOO, responsible for the IOO Group
On the retirement of the incumbent DAE, Lieutenant Colonel C.S.J. Duff, DSO, RNZA, on 3 July 1947, the appointment of DEA was renamed Director of Ordnance Services (DOS), with Lieutenant Colonel Andrew Huia Andrews, RNZAOC, appointed as the first post-war DOS on 1 October 1947.
By 1949 the Ammunition organisation had further evolved, combining the IOO and NZAOC Section into a single ammunition organisation, with
- The CIOO and staff providing DOS with the required technical advice on ammunition
- District IOOs appointed to each District Headquarters as the Ammo advisor to the District DADOS
- District Ammunition Sections now renamed as
- Northern District Ammunition Depot
- Central District Ammunition Depot
- Southern District Ammunition Depot
- Army Ammunition Repair Depot
- Army Ammunition Supply Depot
To facilitate the further reorganisation and refinement of the Ammunition functions, the DOS hosted the first conference of Senior Ammunition Officers at Trentham Camp from 21-24 June 1949.
With the role of Inspection Ordnance Officers and Ammunition Examiners now embedded into the structure of the New Zealand Army, The Ammunition trade remained an under-resourced trade, struggling to fill its establishments despite having a high operating tempo. Typical activities supported during the 1950s included,
- Continuous inspection of wartime ammunition held depots
- Disposal of surplus and obsolete ammunition by
- Dumping at sea
- Destruction within depots
- Sale to the public (SAA natures)
- Transfer to allied nations
- Supply of Ammunition to support Compulsory Military Training
- Disposal of Blinds and unexploded Ammunition discovered in wartime training areas
- Trials and introduction into service of new natures of ammunition
- Technical Ammunition support to the Fiji Military Forces
In 1959 a comprehensive review of army dress embellishments was conducted to provide a policy statement on the wear embellishments such as
- Shoulder titles
- Formation Patches
- Service Badges
- Badges of Appointment
- Instructors Badges
- Skill-at-Arms Badges
- Tradesmen’s badges
In reviewing Badges of Appointment, it was found that in comparison with the British Army, some badges of appointment worn by the British Army were also approved for wear by the New Zealand Army. Worn below the rank badge by WOs and above the chevrons by NCOS, examples of British badges of appointment worn by the New Zealand Army included,
- Gun, worn by WO2s, SSgts and Sgts of the RNZE
- Grenade, worn by WO2s, SSgts and Sgts of the RNZA
- Hammer and Pincers, worn by WO2s, SSgts and Sgts of the RNZEME
- Lyre, worn by Bandsmen
In the case of RAOC AEs, the “A” in Flames badge, it was felt that there was merit in supporting the use of the same badge for wear by RNZAOC ammunition trades, and the adoption of the “A” in Flames badge was recommended.
Despite the many recommendations for the army dress embellishment review, the only decision was to adopt shoulder titles and formation patches. The Army Dress Committee invited the Adjutant General to prepare a paper on dress embellishment and draw up a policy on Badges of Appointment, Instructors Badges, Skill-at-Arms Badges and Tradesmen’s badges. The wait for a badge for AE’s was to continue.
As the RNZAOC organisation matured in the late 1950s, it became apparent that the system in place of having separate Ordnance, Vehicle and Ammunition Depots located in the same locations but under different command arrangements was impracticable and not an efficient use of resources. Starting in 1961, a reorganisation was undertaken to consolidate administrative, accounting and store functions under one headquarters. The restructuring would ensure that there would only be one RNZAOC depot in each district, which would consist of.
- Stores Sub-Depot,
- Ammunition Sub-Depot,
- Vehicle Sub-Depot
- Traffic Centre.
To achieve this, all the existing District Ammunition Depots became sub-depots of a District Ordnance Depot, designated as.
- Ammunition Sub-Depot, Northern Districts Ordnance Depot (NDOD) – Ngāruawāhia,
- Ammunition Sub-Depot Central Districts Ordnance Depot (CDOD) – Linton,
- Ammunition Sub-Depot Southern Districts Ordnance Depot (SDOD) – Burnham
Ammunition Sub-Depots now consisted of:
- Ammunition Inspection Section.
- Ammunition Repair Section.
- Non-Explosive Store.
- NDOD Ammunition Areas.
- Kelm road
- CDOD Ammunition Areas
- SDOD Ammunition Areas
- Mt Somers
Concurrent with the 1961 reorganisation, the RNZAOC decided to align the Ammunition Trade with the RAOC and adopt the same trade names, making the following changes.
- Chief Inspecting Ordnance Officer became Chief Ammunition Technical Officer
- Senior Inspecting Ordnance Officer became Senior Ammunition Technical Officer
- District Inspecting Ordnance Officer became District Ammunition Technical Officer
- Inspecting Ordnance Officer became Ammunition Technical Officer
- Ammunition Examiner became Ammunition Technician
Up to 1961, Ammunition Technical Officers (ATOs) were usually only employed in Ammunition-related duties. However, as a result of this reorganisation, ATOs were now used across all of the RNZAOC and, as such, were required to balance their regular duties with their Ammunition responsibilities.
1968 saw further reorganisation with the Main Ordnance Depot at Trentham was renamed 1 Base Ordnance Depot and the District Ordnance Depots renamed
- Northern District Ordnance Depot to 1 Central Ordnance Depot
- Central District Ordnance Depot to 2 Central Ordnance Depot
- Southern District Ordnance Depot to 3 Central Ordnance Depot
A significant aspect of the 1968 reorganisation was the Disestablishment of The Small Arms and Proof Office co-located at Mount Eden when the CAC closed down, ending the ammunition trades’ long relationship with the CAA. Additionally, the Ammunition Proof and Experimental Centre operations at Kuku Valley was closed down, and its operations moved to the new Joint Services Proof Establishment at Kauri Point in Auckland.
Keen to provide the Ammunition trade with a suitable trade identifier Major D.H Rollo, the CATO, sent a message to the New Zealand Defence Liaison Staff in London in September 1968 requesting the following information from the UK Chief Inspector of Land Service Ammunition (CILSA) on the RAOC AT Badge
- Do other ranks and officers wear it
- Conditions of entitlement to wear
- Cost of badge
- Possibility of procuring samples
- Any other pertinent details which may guide in adopting a similar badge
By the end of November 1968, through the New Zealand Defence Liaison Staff, the UK CILSA provided the following information on the RAOC AT badge to the New Zealand CATO,
- Worn by all Ammunition Technicians on No 1 and No2 Dress. It is not worn with any other form of dress.
- No1 Dress – 7/6d each,
- No 2 Dress – 5.1/4d each
- Samples of each badge to be provided
Armed with this information, CATO raised a submission to the 77th meeting of the Army Dress Committee in April 1969 for approval to introduce the Flaming “A” badge for New Zealand ATs. However, it was not a robust submission and was declined because it was contended that there was not sufficient justification for the badge, with the following reasons given.
- Other trades in the Army were equally deserving of such a badge
- The low standard to qualify for the badge
The Dress Committee agreed to reconsider the matter if further justification could be supplied.
Based on this setback, the new CATO, Major Bob Duggan, reconsidered the submission and, on 13 July 1970, through the DOS, submitted the following,
6. R & SO Vol II provides for the wearing of qualification badges, and a study of that publication reveals that a large proportion of Army Corps already have these. Many badges require less effort for qualification than would the exacting trade of Ammunition Technician. In addition, and supporting the acceptance of an ATO/AT Badge, these technicians are frequently required to deal with other services and members of the public.
7. The low standard required to qualify for this badge has been reconsidered in light of information obtained on similar standards received from overseas. In addition, it was never the intention to cheapen the significance of this badge in the RNZAOC or those of any other Corps. The standard required to qualify for the ATO/AT badge would now be as follows:
a. Technical Officers who have practised for a minimum of one year.
b. All Ammunition Technicians, regardless of rank, who have qualified in all ways for four stars in their trade.
8. The Public Relations side of the duties of ATO/Ats, as mentioned in paragraph 6 above, is further explained. This aspect concerns the collection and disposal of stray ammunition and explosives as well as involvement with the Police and other Government Departments in bomb scares. The average annual number of items, all natures and types of stray ammunition which have been collected over the last three years is 5750, which represents approximately 450 calls by ATOs or four-star ATs. ATO/ATs are requested by Police Stations throughout New Zealand
a. To visit many private homes to identify-stray ammunition.
b. Assess whether or not the items are in a dangerous state, and
c. Remove such items for disposal. If an item is in an armed state, it could mean disposal in situ’.
9. The request is therefore not for a trade badge, but one of recognition and identification as to the dangerous and skilful nature of their specialist work.
With the Support of the Army Q Branch, the Army Dress committee approved the introduction of the AT Badge for qualified RNZAOC ATOs and ATs on 31 May 1971
Per the submission, the criteria for being awarded the AT badge was for Officers to have completed one year of practical experience after graduating from the ATOs Course in Australia or the United Kingdom. For ATs to qualify, they were required to be qualified in all aspects of the trade, which could take up to six years.
The original AT badge was identical to the RAOC AT Badge. However, in 1988, fern fonds were included in the design to update the badge into one with a New Zealand character.
The AT trade matured into a highly specialised trade that, on the amalgamation of the RNZAOC into the Royal New Zealand Army Logistic Regiment (RNZALR) in 1996, had a wide range of responsibilities, including
- The inspection, storage and maintenance of all ammunition and explosives used by the Army
- The conduct of technical trials on new ammunition,
- The conduct investigations into ammunition incidents and accidents,
- The disposal of unserviceable or obsolete ammunition,
- The management of Explosive Ordnance Devices and Improvised Explosive Devices.
The AT trade has progressed from storing and managing black powder magazines in the 19th century to managing the many modern ammunition natures available to the 21st century New Zealand Army. Although introduced in 1971 to recognise and identify the dangerous and skilful nature of their specialist work, the flaming “A” badge also represents the progress the AT trade has made.