New Zealand Defence Stores, Annual Report, 1914

In the years leading up to 1914, the New Zealand Military Forces underwent a significant transformation. Under the Authority of the Defence Act 1909, the old volunteer system was abolished, and a new military framework supported by universal Military Service by all males between certain ages was established. The evolution of New Zealand’s Military and how General Godley and his Cadre of Imperial and local Military Officers and Non-Commissioned Offices created a modern, well equipped Army is well recorded. However it is the role of the Defence Stores in which has remained anonymous. A component of the new Zealand Military since the 1860’s the Defence Stores would furnish the equipment for multiple mobilisation and training camps and equip thousands of men with uniforms, arms, and ammunition on the mobilisation of New Zealand in August 1914.The culmination of the Defence Stores effort would unknowingly be validated by Military Historian Glyn Harper who in his 2003 book Johnny Enzed states; [1]

In all aspects of required military equipment, from boots and uniforms to webbing, ammunition and weaponry, in 1914 New Zealand had ample stocks on hand to fully equip the Johnny Enzed’s of the Expeditionary Force.     

Although the Defence Stores was an active participant in the lead up to the First World War, it has been the victim of a pattern of amnesia which had virtual wiped its existence and contribution from the historical narrative.

Under the management of Major James O’Sullivan, the Director of Equipment and Stores, the 1914 Regulations for the New Zealand Military details that the Defence Stores were[2]

responsible for the supply of clothing, equipment, and general stores; supplies of stationery, forms, and books; supply of, all vehicles and technical equipment, excepting Artillery and Engineers; storage and distribution of small-arms, accoutrements, and camp equipment’s, Customs shipping entries, and ammunition.

The following report was produced by Major O’Sullivan and details the activities of the Defence Stores up to 31 March 1914, and provided a useful appreciation of how the Defence Stores were placed prior to the mobilisation in August 1914.




NEW ZEALAND MILITARY FORCES.

REPORT OF THE DIRECTOR OF EQUIPMENT & STORES FOR THE YEAR ENDING 31 MARCH 1914

The Quartermaster-General
Headquarters N.Z. Military Forces
Wellington

Sir,

I have the honour to report as follows on the Stores, Magazines and Equipment in the Dominion for the year ending 31st March ,1914.

SMALL ARMS AMMUNITION

The reserve of Small Arms Ammunition .303 Ball has since my last report increased by 138,000 rounds. The quality has maintained its excellence, and no complaints of any moment have been received during the year. the increased supply of cordite ordered has been received, thus removing any danger through delays in shipment. This will build up a reserve of cordite, which will be available to keep the Factory fully employed in the event of short shipments usually caused through Strikes in gland.[3]

The question or an increased reserve of Ammunition is a policy matter, but I wish to point out that the large increase in our Smal1 Arms during the year, consequent upon the importations from Egeland md Canada, has proportionately reduced the number of rounds available per Rifle.

The total issue of .303 Ball Ammunition during the year was 4,I62,000.

SMALL ARMS

During the year, 30,000 Rifles M.LE. Long were imported into the Dominion, 15,000 being from England and 15,000 from Canada. Of the English, 5,000 were perfectly new arms, while the 10,000-part worn were in such good condition that except to an Armourer or one very familiar with Arms, they appeared to be quite new.

The former were purchased at £2 each and the later at were purchased at £1, and as the landed cost of a new M/L.E. Rifle Long has hitherto been £3/12/. it can readily be calculated what an immense saving their purchase meant to the Dominion.[4]

CANADIAN RIFLES

The Canadian Rifles arrived in various shipments, the cost in Canada to the Department being 4/2d.landed cost 5/. Each. These Arms were not, of course, expected to be in the same condition as the English Rifles, having been thoroughly oiled prior to despatch front Canada, On arrival in the Dominion, however, after being overhaled and thoroughly cleaned by the Armourers, it was found that the Ars were in excellent condition, less than 2% requiring rebarrelling, while a fair number were quite new. Sword Bayonets and Scabbards patten “88 were also supplied with these Arms, while the Arms Chests in which they were packed, were in excellent order.

At 4/2d each, these Arms were a wonderful bargain, especially when it is remembered that a Rifle Bolt alone costs in England I6/.  If any more of these rifles are obtainable, I would recommend that another five thousand be purchased, as they will be required if it is intended to train the General Training Section of the Reserve, it would be a waste of money to issue new Rifles to these if they are allowed to keep them in their homes, as they would very soon go astray or become unserviceable, while even if a percentage of the Canadian Rifles were lost, the actual financial loss would no be great.

The whole of the above Arms were received during the months of January, February and March and were immediately issued to the Senior Cadets, who are now fully armed.

No Protectors, Bottle Oil, or Pullthroughs were received with the Canadian Arms, but a supply has been cabled for, which, on arrival, will be issued.

We have in stock about 8,000 new spare barrels for Rifles M.L.H. Long, which means that 13.3% of the Rifles in the Dominion could be rebarrelled at short notice. It is, perhaps, just as well that we have a good reserve, as it is very probable a number of the rifles on issue to Cadets will be neglected.

The total number of Rifles M.L.E Long at present in Store and on issue to the forces is about 46,000.

RIFLES M.L.E. SHORT

The total number of Rifles M.L.E. Short in the Dominion is 13,810. These are on issue to Mounted Rifles, Field and Garrison Artillery, Field Engineers and Coast Defence troops, except about 1,900 of the Mk I pattern on issue to Senior Cadets and which are now being recalled.

Our reserve of Barrels and Spare parts is in about the sane proportions as for the Rifles M.L.E.Long.

RIFLES MARTINI-ENFIELD

There are in all about 1,100 of these in the Dominion. They are on issue to Senior Cadets, but are being recalled, so the question of how they are to be utilised will be for your consideration.

RIFLES .310

There are 1,052 of these, which were taken over from the Education Department, and issued to Senior Cadets in Auckland District. They were, however, condemned by District Headquarters as being useless for Musketry, and are being returned to Store. The question of what is to be done with these and the 928,000 rds of .310 Bal1 Ammunition will have to be considered later.

CARBINES

There are in the Dominion about I,400 M.L.E and 2,500 M.E Carbines, which are principally on issue to Colleges and High School Senior Cadets. There are, however, complaints of the poor shooting made with these in comparison with that with the Rifles on issue to other Senior Cadet Companies. Demand have therefore been made for Rifles to replace the Carbines, and in some cases this has been done, while the remainder will be replaced during the current year. The question of what to do with the replaced Carbines will therefore require consideration.

REVOLVERS

We have about 900 Revolvers in stock. These are of an obsolete pattern known as Dean and Adams, which were imported about thirty years ago. In fact, it is impossible to obtain ammunition for them, as the Webley Pistol Cordite Ammunition will not fit. There is a quantity of about 9,000 rounds of powder filled ball for these Revolvers imported in 1880, but it ss not reliable. There are also about 14,000 rds Cordite filled ball, but this does not properly fit the Revolvers.

RIFLES SOLD TO DEFENCE RIFLE CLUBS.

The aforegoing Arms do not include the 3,423 Rifles M.L.E.Long and the 2,719 Rifles M.E. sold to members of Defence Rifle C1ubs. These are the property of the members, but no doubt practically the whole of these would be available in an emergency.

ACCOUTREMENTS

As mentioned in my last annual Report, an additional supply of Mills Web equipment was required, and in September 1913 demand was made for 4,000 sets and 20,000 Tools entrenching with Carriers, but approval for the expenditure was not obtained until the end of March this year. When these arrive from England, the equipment of the Infantry Regiments will be completed.

During the year all Brown Leather Accoutrements were called in from Field Engineers and Garrison Artillery, and replaced with Mills Web Modified pattern equipment consisting of Belt, waist: 2 Pouches and Frog This was considered to be a more suitable equipment for these units, besides which a considerable saving in expenditure was effected.

The Railway and Post and Telegraph Battalions and the Army Service Corps Companies have since been similarly equipped.

So far, no improved equipment for Mounted Rifles has been devised, our own Bandolier equipment, which has given satisfaction, is still being used.

As the whole of our Bottles Water Mk.IV are unfit for further service an additional supply of Bottle Water MK.VI with sling, carriers, has been ordered to complete equipment of Mounted Regiments and Ordnance Units. A further supply of Slings, Web, is also under order.

The Belts, Waist, Web, devised for Senior Cadets, which are made in the Dominion as a cost of 6d each, are giving general satisfaction.

SWORDS, OFFICERS & SAM BROWNE BELTS.

Owing to all Officers now being given an issue of a Sword and Sam Browne Belt on First Appointment, a large number of these are annually required.  Of course, the number issued this year is greater than wi1l be that of subsequent issues. Taking free issues and sales during the year, there were issued 372 Swords 800 Sam Browne Belts.

MAXIM MACHINE GUNS.

As Mentioned in my last Annual Report, one each Maxim Machine Gun mounted on Tripod with Packsaddlery complete, was issued to Mounted and Infantry Regiments, and a supply of Tripods ordered to convert the Maxim Guns mounted on Field Carriages to Packsaddlery. The Maxims on Field Carriages were called into Store, but it was ascertained before these Guns could be properly fitted to Packsaddles, a number of suitable stores were requir4d from England. These are now under order from England and on arrival. The conversion proceeded with. The addition of one Regiment of Infantry to the original establishments leaves us deficient of two Machine Guns, as no provision j=had been made for creases, and no spare Guns had been ordered. It will therefore be necessary to consider if two more Guns with Packsaddlery complete should be ordered.

If it is intended to equip Coast Defence Infantry in Auckland, Christchurch and Dunedin, or other Units, with machine Guns, a further order will be necessary.

During the year, three of the service locks which were broken were sent to England to be repaired and reported on. The locks have been returned and re-issued, and the report from England states that the breakages due to over tempering of the steel part in construction. As no further breakages were reported, it is presumed that only these three locks were faulty.

UNIFORM EQUIPMENT. I913/14.

TERRITORAL & SENIOR CADET

During the year the clothing of territorials and Senior Cadets has been continued steadily and at the end of March, with the exception of Caps, Forage, all clothing demands were completed.

The supply of Greatcoats and Putties, which I mentioned in my last Report as being in a backward condition, has now been brought up to date, and all branches of the service have been fully suppled as demands came forward.

A considerable saving was effected through the importation from England of some 10,000pairs Imperial Service Putties at a cost of about 3/. per pair, as against the price required for a local made article – which being all wool did not give satisfaction – and which cost about 4/9d per pair.

With the exception of Greatcoats, of which some 5,500 were received from Southern Firms, a Wellington Firm secured the contract for suppliers of Territorial Clothing, and they have made deliveries without delay thus enabling the Department to issue immediately on receipt of Requestions from Regiments.

The quality of material and make of garments has been fully maintained, and no complaints whatever have been received in this respect.

The delay in delivery of Caps, Forage, has been owing to there been no Factory in the Dominion which make the waterproof material as laid down in specifications of new Contract, and the supplies of this material had therefore to be obtained from England. Owing to Strikes and other causes the Contractors experienced great difficulty in obtaining supplies in time to meet our requirements.

Every effort has been made to keep down expenditure in connection with Uniform Clothing  – no order has been placed with Contractors in excess of actual requirements – and though in some items the minimum number we were required to take under the Contract has been exceeded, this was owing to short deliveries under Contracts for 1911/13, and the formation of the Army Service Corps and Railway Battalions, which necessitated distinctive Uniforms being made.

The position of Uniform Clothing for year ending 31st March 1914 is:-

TERRITORIAL UNIFORMS.

 JacketsTrousersPantaloonsHatsCapsGreatcoats Putties
      MountedDismtd 
Receipts545842981840Nil18841342767810000
Issues428226229419468224579347705748
In Stock6583672033284966320164929254258

When it is remembered that there are Uniforms stocked for the six branches of the service, each of which are again divided in 31 different sizes, the total number in store is not large, and unless maintained, it would be impossible to issue the particular sizes asked for on requestions received, nor would we be able on a sudden emergency to meet demands.

SENIOR CADET UNIFORMS.

The issue of Clothing to senior Cadets has been steadily maintained during the year, and on 3Int March 1914, all Requisitions for Clothing received had been supplied on that date. The quality of material and the make of the uniform reflects credit on the Contractors.

As with the Territorial Uniform, only the particular sizes of garments of which our stocks were nearly exhausted, were ordered, and the minimum quantity under contract was not taken during the year. As far as possible, all Trousers returned to Store, also old pattern Shorts, were washed, relined in bands and fork and converted at a small cost in to new pattern shorts, and are being issued ad required.

The position Senior cadet Uniforms is:-

 BlousesShortsHatsPuttie HoseWeb Belts
Total Receipts to 31/3/19144446343227431504647832011
Total issues3493739000348453551331993
Leaving in Store 31/3/1914932662279105796518

As we had a good stock of Cadet Clothing in Store on 1/4/193, only small orders were placed with Contractors last year. As under our Contract we are bound to place order for 5,000 each item per year, we will have to place larger orders this year. The Issues last year were about 8000 suits.

OFFICERS UNIFORMS

Under Circular Q.M.G 85/36 of 16/10/1912, the cash payment of £15. and £9 to Territorial and Senior Cadet Officers respectively was abolished, and a Free Issue of Jacket, Riding Pantaloons or Knicker Breeches, Putties and Cap Forage was made in lieu thereof to Officers on First Appointment on Probation, and Hat, Greatcoat &Trousers on Final Appointment after passing Examination. The cost of these uniforms being:-

 Mounted Service Dismounted Service
Without Badges of rank£6:16:3 £6:8:9

As there were some 375 Officers clothed in this manner during the year it will be seen that a considerable saving was effected. The Contractors supplied a first-rate uniform made to special measurements of individual Officers, and no complaints were made by Officers in this respect.

A Sam Browne Belt and Officers Sword for use of Officers newly appointed are issued to the Regiment of Company to which he may be attached. These items remain the property of the Government , and are handed in when the Officer retires or is transferred.

As with Territorial Uniform, only the particular sizes of garments of which our stocks were nearly exhausted were ordered, and the minimum quantity under Contract was not taken during the year. As far as possible all Trousers returned to Store also old pattern Shorts were washed, relined in bands and forks and converted at a small cost, into new pattern shorts and are being issued as required.

The position of Senior Cadet Uniforms is:-

 BlousesShortsHatsPuttie HoseBelts Waist
Receipts5954408252032011
Issues865999847570714731993
In Stock852662979705796618

It will be seen that the issues last year were almost equal to our present stock, so that during the current year we shall have to provide somewhat above the minimum of Contractor, viz. 5000 each item.

UNIFORMS

It has come to my knowledge from conversations with officers and Regimental Q.M. Sergeants that there are a considerable number of part worn Uniforms in Regimental Stores, which have been returned principally by men who have been exempted from further training and by others who have 1eft the Dominion, and I understand that instructions have been issued to Regimental Q.M. Sergeants not to re-issue these part worn uniforms.

In this respect, I consider that if I could visit the Regimental Stores during the year for the purpose of examining this clothing and return to Store as ay be fir to be washed and pressed and relined where necessary, they would be as good and could be issued as new Uniforms, as is done in the case of trousers as used by Senior cadets. In this manner, instead of paying about 30/. for new Tunic and Trousers, they could be made equal to new for about four to five shillings

SERVICE BOOTS

The sale to the Defence Forces of the service Pattern Boot was well maintained. During the year some 5100 pairs were received from Contractors, of which the greater proportion were sold for cash. Owing to the increased cost to te Department (in consequence of high price of leather etc) we were forces to raise the price from 11/6 per pair to 14/. Per pair. General satisfaction has been given to all wearing these for Military duty, as the sales in Training Camps denote

In all 1arge Training Camps, an Officer is sent from Defence Stores with a good stock of Boots for sale in Camp, and in order that the men may use the boots while in Camp and to make payment easy, the amount is deducted from pay at the end of Camp.

SHEETS, GROUND, WATERPROOF.

An additional Supply of 10,000 Sheets ground was obtained during the year, bringing our equipment up to 20,282. There are always considerable losses in these as they are useful for so many purposes in private life. They disappear both in large and weekend Camps, in fact after a large camp, one can never be certain what are the losses until final check in store is made. They have been known to disappear in transit from Camps. Of course, shortages are charged against Units, but this does not entirely prevent loss/

BAGS, NOSE, HORSES.

6,000 Nose bags for feeding Horses in camps were obtained during the year. This was a very necessary item of equipment as there was considerable waste of horse feed hitherto. The saving in horse feed that will be effected in a short time will compensate for the cost of the Nose Bags. The bags are all branded ‘DEFENCE↑1914” and numbered consecutively, so that los or shortage can be traced to the

FIELD COOKERS &c.

In my last Report I mentioned that a supply of “Roberts” Cookers was being obtained. 24 of these, each estimated to cook for 500 men, were issued in Camps during 1913, and gave great satisfaction when occupied with the method of cooking hitherto in use. 11 additional 500 men Cookers and 16 – 250 men Cookers were obtained since January 1914, and the whole are now in use as under:-

Auckland9500 men4250 men
Wellington104
Canterbury84
Otago84

There was also obtained from England a “Sykes” Travelling Cooker, while the 9th Regiment Mounted Rifles imported 2 Lune Valley Travelling Cookers.

Trials are now being made in Takapau Camp as to the merits of each. The landed cost of the “Sykes” Cooker was £130, whereas the local article -500men Cooker – costs £64, and the 250 men Cooker £46. I am unable to give the cost of the Lune Valley Cooker as it was imported Privately,

If the “Roberts” Cooker is to be adopted, 1 an of opinion that no more of the 500 men cookers should be obtained as they are too heavy to handle and are liable to breakage in transport. The 250-man Cooker in an ideal weight and can be easily handled by 4 men, 1ifting in or out of any conveyance, besides which double 1n or out of any conveyance, besides which, double companies under the new organization are 250 each.

CAMP KETTLES.

There is a very good supply in Ordnance Stores, but sone are getting the worse for wear. An order for 1000 has been placed in England.

MEAT DISHES, BOILERS, LANTERNS, WASH BASINS etc are all Locally made, and supply can always be ordered as required to replace

KIT BAGS.

A sum of money was placed on the estimates last year to provide Kit bags, but the late Quartermaster-General, for Financial reason, deemed it advisable to let the procuring of a supply stand over for the present.

B0OKs, FORMS, STATIONARY, PAPER TARGETS ETC.

A large supply of Drill Books etc were obtained during the year and distributed to the various centres as instructed. There are now 225 NZ Military Forms and Books in use. The printing of these Forms and Books is carried out at the Government Printing Office but owing to pressure of work for the other Departments, delays in printing our demands often occur. I am of opinion that better paper in many of these forms should be used in many of these Forms, especially those which are records. There is no comparison in the quality of paper used in our Forms and that used in the Imperial Service Forms

I am certain there must be considerable waste of Forms in the Area Group Officers and also in the Regimental Offices, as the demands sometimes made are out of all proportion to the requirements. These demands haves to be cut down here and I think Staff Officers should be impressed that Forms cost money and should be used only for the purpose for which they were printed  

ARMOURERS.

During the year the four senior District Armourers were brought to Wellington and put through a three weeks course of instruction in Maxim Machine Guns under Staff Srgt, Major Luckman, who, at the end of the period, examined the on the theory and practice of examination and repairs to Maxim Guns

The men took a keen interest in the work, and at the final examination passed to the satisfaction of the examiner, who reported that certificates should be given. This was approved and the certificates issued. The fact of these men holding certificat4rs will enable them to instruct their assistants in Districts, and these when they qualify, can also be issued certificates

The CADET ARMOURERS are getting on very well, and in order to give them experience in the Field, one Cadet has been temporally attached to each district.

Reports from District Armourers as to the condition of Arms on issue to Units have been, generally speaking, good, but owing to the outbreak of Smallpox in Auckland District, the inspection had to be discontinued, so that all the arms were not examined. The general strike also affected the examination especially in the North Island.

Owing to the increased number of small arms now issued to Cadets, the personnel of this branch of the service will require increasing , and the districts subdividing, as it would be impossible for an Armourer to make inspection of all the Small Arms in any one District during the year. I will later submit a proposal to meet this question.

DISTRICT STOREKEEPERS.

A conference of the three District Storekeepers was held in my Office in August 1913to discuss many matters in providing for stores not provided for in the regulations. This is far preferable to correspondence on minor matters of detail, as it was found that letters of instruction and Headquarters circulars were sometimes differently interpreted. When the occasion is deemed necessary, I will again ask for authority for a conference.

The Storekeepers are all Officers with a keen sense of their responsibility regarding Government property, and take a personal interest in their work, without which as Storekeeper or Quartermaster-Sergeant is useless.[5]

TRANSPORT WAGONS.

No additions were made to this service during the year. The late Quartermaster-General made provision in the Estimates for 32 Field Service Wagons similar in type to the colonial pattern in Store, being satisfied that with slight modification, this wagon would be very suitable for the Dominion. For Financial reasons the inviting of tenders for these was held over.

No addition was made to the equipment of Water Carts during the year. The new type received with the Field Guns is far and away more expensive than that hitherto in use, and consideration will have to be given this subject for the equipment laid down is to be provided.

I am of opinion that it would pay the Department well if one Motor Wagon is provided for each of the four centres. The cost of cartage is becoming a heavy item, especially in Wellington, and if the Department had its own wagons this item would be considerably reduced. The fact that under the terms of the Public Works Contracts for Cartage the transport of one case from the Railway or Wharf is charges by time or ton weight or measurement will indicate that cartage is an expensive item, whereas if our own wagons were available, collection of parcels and cases could be made at stated time, all with greater efficiency, Other Departments of the State find it to their advantage to run their own transport Motor Wagon, and I am od opinion it would be ad advantage if we could do likewise.

MEDICAL EQUIPMENT.

During the year the Director of Medical Services laid down a list of Medical Equipment to be issued to Mounted and Field Ambulances and Regimental Medical Officers. Included in this were a new pattern Surgical Haversack and new pattern Medical Chest: these being entirely different to the pattern hitherto in use. Tenders for supply were invited. The Chests and Haversacks were made in the Dominion, but arrangements had to be made with the successful tenderers to import the supply of instruments and drugs which arrives in the Dominion at the end of March 1914. The Chests and Haversacks were then filled and issued to Districts for distribution. As the new equipment provides for one wagon only, one each was taken from the Field Ambulances and issued to the Mounted Field Ambulances. Each Regimental Medical Officer is provided with a surgical haversack, and in addition to the equipment of Stretchers of Field Ambulances, each Regiment is provided with two. These to remain as permanent equipment.  I may mention that all our Field Stretchers are now made in the Dominion, and Mr Reid – the maker of same – informs me that the Department having its Stretchers made locally has been the means of St John ‘s Ambulance and others also getting their supplies locally, instead of importing as hitherto. The Stretchers are made at about the same cost as the imported ones, and the Director pf Medical Services has stat ed that he is very satisfied with them.

VETERINARY STORES.

Hitherto no provision was made for Veterinary Chests, medicine for use in the Feld, the practice being for Veterinary Officers to obtain supplies from the nearest Chemist. This method while being expensive, was not satisfactory. During the year, the Director of Veterinary Services and the Principle Veterinary Officer, of Wellington, paid visits to the Stores, and under their supervision, a Field Veterinary Chest was devised. The necessary instruments and drugs were obtained, and the Chests filled and distributed in time for the Divisional Camps.

Twenty Chests in all were made, and it is proposed that each be retained at the Headquarters of the Field Artillery in each District, the balance to be kept in District Store for use in the Field.

STORE BUILDINGS.

The Store buildings are in good order, the only additions during the year being those to the Christchurch Store, which were very necessary. Owing to increase of Equipment and Clothing, all buildings were taxed to their utmost capacity during the year.

Arrangements have now been made for District Stores to keep a stock of Forms etc for issue, instead of having to send individual requisitions to Wellington for Supply.

If Transport Wagons and Harness are to be provided for the Army Service Corps, provision will require to be made for housing same. I am of opinion that the time has now arrived for the establishment of a District Store at Palmerston North, as it is more central for distribution, and cost or railage would be considerably reduced.  The Wellington City Units could still be suppled from the Store in Wellington

MAGAZINES FOR SMALL ARMS AMMUNUITION.

Our magazines for storage of Small Arms Ammunition were taxed to their utmost capacity during the year, and indeed sone were overtaxed, as the Ammunition could not be stored in strict accordance with Magazine Regulations, If our reserve of Ammunition is increased, it will be absolutely necessary to increase the accommodation, especially in Otago. I have previously drawn attention to the inadequate Magazine accommodation in Otago, in which only 3 million rounds of Ammunition can be stored, whereas there should be accommodation for at least 5 Million rounds. At present the maximin supply that can be stored in the South Island is only 8 million rounds, which to my mind is inadequate. Provision should therefore be made in this year’s estimates for

AEROPLANE

The Bleriot Monoplane “Britannia” presented to the NZ Government by the British Aerial League was duly received during the year, and a suitable shed was erected in Defence Stores yard at a cost of about £130 for housing the same. The Machine was subsequently sent to Auckland Exhibition, but has now been received back art Wellington

According to instructions contained in a Cable from the High Commissioner, the machine requires constant attention and care and has been place under the supervision of the Armourer, who details a Mechanic to attend to the cleaning and oiling of same.

8TOCKTAKING.

To comply with the provisions of the Public Service Regulations an annual Stocktaking has to be made, and this had been almost completed when the general strike took place. This necessitated the whole of the Staff being employed and the Stores and building being used for nearly three months in the housing and accommodation of the Special Mounted Constables. Immediately on their departure, the large shipments of Arms from England and Canada arrived. As preparations had then to be made for supplies and equipment for Camp for the inspection by the Inspector-General, Overseas Forces, I have been compelled to postpone the stocktaking till this year.

STAFF.

In conclusion of the Report, I have to mention that owing to increased work in the Store and yard, temporary extra labourers had to be employed. This pressure was overcome about the end of April and the men were discharged. There are other men on the temporary staff, such as Storeman, Clothier, Hatter, Packers who are experienced at his class of work, are industrious, and take special interest in the work. These men are an absolute necessity to carry on the Clothing and other ranches of the Department in which they are employed.

Finally, I wish to especially mention the permanent Staff, workmen and the office staff. To the letter, I owe the success and efficiency of this branch, as they are officer who take a special and personnel interest in their duties, and who, in addition to their own work, were called upon at the time of the Industrial troubles in Wellington, to feed, clothes and equip the Mounted Special Constables who were brought to Wellington to maintain law and order.  

The controlling officers on several occasions complimented me on the efficiency of the staff.

This extra work necessitated the Office Staff returning to duty at night after the Special Constables had been disbanded in order that their work could be brought up to date. Some even had to sacrifice their Annual Leave

As I have previously stated, owing to the steady increase of work in the Office, the permanent appointment of one extra Clerk is badly needed.

Defence Stores,
Wellington.
8th May, 1914.

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Note: You have been supplied confidentially with Returns of all Arms, Ammunition and Equipment in the Dominion, consequently figures are not given in this return

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Notes

[1] Glyn Harper, Johnny Enzed: the New Zealand soldier in the First World War 1914-1918, First World War centenary history, (Auckland, New Zealand: Exisle Publishing Limited, 2015, 2015), 29.

[2] “Regulations for the Military Forces of New Zeland,” New Zeland Gazette, Issue 6, 26 January 1914, 237, https://rnzaoc.files.wordpress.com/2018/08/Regulations-for-the-Military-Forces-of-New-Zealand.-1914-1.pdf.

[3] The majority of Small Arms Ammunition for the New Zealand Military was manufactured in New Zealand by the Colonial Ammunition Company at their Mount Eden Factory in Auckland.

[4] £1 in 1914 equals NZD$167.55 in 2021

[5] The authorisation for permanent District Storekeepers was for one each at Auckland, Christchurch, and Dunedin, with the following appointments made:

  • Mr William Thomas Beck – District Storekeeper, Auckland
  • Mr Arthur Rumbold Carter White – District Storekeeper, Christchurch
  • Mr Owen Paul McGuigan – District Storekeeper, Dunedin

General Godley and New Zealand’s Defence Stores Department

16 October 1914 was a significant day for New Zealand as the main body of the New Zealand Expeditionary Force (NZEF) sailed out of Wellington Harbour, marking the departure of the largest, best trained and equipped Military Force ever to leave New Zealand shores. Departing in ten troopships, the 8500 men and 5000 horses of the NZEF would be the second significant departure of troops from New Zealand as the 1400 strong Samoa Expeditionary Force had departed several weeks earlier on 14 August 1914, only ten days after the declaration of war on 5 August 1914.

The fleet of troopships which transported the Main Body of the NZEF and their escort in Wellington Harbour, 15 October 1914. Image courtesy of Matt Pomeroy.

The mounting of such a force within such timeframes was the culmination of years of planning, implementation and training to provide a structured, equipped and supportable force able to easily integrate into an Imperial army alongside the UK, Australia, Canada and India. While credit for the development of the New Zealand Military in the years leading up to 1914 can be accredited to Major General Godley and his staff of British Army officers seconded to the New Zealand Military Forces. Little study has been dedicated to the logistic organisation responsible for supporting the Force, the Defence Stores Department.  Under the leadership of Major James O’Sullivan, the Defence Stores Department would be the organisation working behind the scenes with responsibility for the supply and maintenance of clothing and personal equipment, accoutrements, saddlery, harness, small-arms and small-arms ammunition, machine guns, material, transport, vehicles, camp equipment, and all stores required by New Zealand’s Military Forces.

However, despite the success in providing the stores and maintenance support required for the 1914 mobilisation, the establishment of reinforcement training camps, and maintenance of the Territorial Army, the Defence Stores Department has remained an anonymous participant in New Zealand’s Military Historical narrative. So why is this so? The historical record does not record any shameful failures necessitating its historical absence. However,  correspondence of the era indicates that there might have been a clash of personalities between General Godley and Major O’Sullivan, which has hidden the Defence Stores from view for over a hundred years.

General Sir Alexander Godley. S P Andrew Ltd :Portrait negatives. Ref: 1/1-013997-G. Alexander Turnbull Library, Wellington, New Zealand. /records/22715773

As the NZEF finalised its final preparations before boarding its transport ships, General Godley visited the Defence Stores on 24 September and thanked the Defence Stores Staff for their contribution to mounting the NZEF.[1]

Departing on 16 October, Godley would be at sea for ten days before preparing a handwritten note to Colonel James Allen, the New Zealand Minister of Defence. Reacting to what could only be described as gossip, Godley’s note would set in motion a series of events that would test the Defence Stores and lead to O’Sullivan’s resignation.[2]

Dear Colonel Allen

Just before I left Wellington and since sailing, I have heard a good deal of talk about the conduct of the Stores at Wellington and criticism of J O’Sullivan. I believe the Mayor and the ladies Committee who provided articles for the men were very disappointed with his method of costing and accounting for what they sent him for the troops.

Campbell (Coast Defence Commander) also spoke to me of irregularities which had come to his notice. I have little doubt in my own mind that O’Sullivan and probably some of his subordinates are, like all Quartermasters and Storekeepers feathering their nests to a certain extent. But against this one has to put the fact that, broadly speaking, the equipping of this Force and of the South African contingents, by O’Sullivan was extremely well done and considering the opportunities he has had, one can only be astonished at his moderation in feathering his nest.

My object in writing now, though is to suggest that it might be worth while to have some sort of special audit of the Stores accounts for the Expeditionary Force, perhaps by the Public Service Commission or somebody of the kind. I mean by this an inspection and stocktaking of the Stores in kind more than cash transactions, as the later are always taken for granted and audited by the Treasury as regards vouchers not the Audit Department. Esson tells me that whenever the question of an Army Audit has been raised, the Audit Department have made difficulties and have suggested that it clashed with their functions, but this is probably a misconception and in any case the Army system has grown so big that some more checks is I am sure required, and the departure of this Force would be a good reason for starting it now.

But, whatever happens, the good work done by O’Sullivan and his Department should not be overlooked, though it is too close a borough, and would now be all the better for shaking up and overhauling with fresh blood.

Yours Sincerely

Alex Godley

Possibly in response to Godley’s note, the Public Service Commission convened the Defence Stores Commission, which throughout 1915 examined the Defence Stores in detail, producing a comprehensive report to the Minister of Defence on 31 August 1915.

Forwarded to the Commander of NZ Forces Brigadier General A.W Robin, a reply was furnished on 9 September 1915. Admitting fault where required, Robins reply, however, counted many of the commission’s points and highlighted the success of the Defence Stores and highlighted that the Defence Stores were operating adequately under existing Military Stores and Treasury Regulations. However, O’Sullivan’s reputation had been tarnished.

A letter from Allen to Godley sent on 4 January 1916 summarises the situation[3]

The Stores Department, about which there was an enquiry have come fairly well out of it, but I gather there is a pretty strong feeling that 0’Sullivan, who is on sick leave now should not go back.

Although acquitted of any misconduct, O’Sullivan position had become untenable, and to maintain the smooth functioning of the Defence Stores, Allen outlined changes that had been made to the Defence Stores in a letter to Godley on 13 April 1916,[4]

So far as Defence is concerned, Captain McCristell has been brought in from Featherston and placed in 0’Sullivan’ s position, the latter being made Inspector of 0rdnance Stores.

I should think 0’Sullivan has been more enquired into than any other officer in the Department, but nothing very detrimental has come out about him; however, it seemed to me to be wise, especially in view of the fact that the Supplies Board -which is under the control of the Hon. Mr Myers – was so determined about it, that he should give up his position as head of the Stores Department. I have every confidence that McCristell will do well there.

Replying  to Allen on 24 March, Godley was less than supportive of O’Sullivan and made clear his personnel feelings, [5]

I am sorry, but not altogether surprised, to hear about 0’Sullivan. I think you know my feeling about him, which is that, considering the class of man he is, and the opportunities he has had, one can only be astonished at his moderation. Ninetynine out of a hundred in his position would have made a large fortune.

A component of the New Zealand Military establishment since the 1860s, the Defence Stores Departments tenure as a civilian branch of the Military were numbered. Although nothing detrimental came out of the Public Service Commissions report, the time was deemed suitable to follow the lead of the Australian and the Canadians and militarise the Defence Stores into an Army Ordnance Corps. Gazetted on 1 February 1917, the New Zealand Army Ordnance Corps assumed the responsibilities of the Defence Stores Department, with McCristell assuming the role as the head of the Ordnance Corps.[6]

O’Sullivan would retire from his position of Inspector of Ordnance Stores in January 1917, to take up farming in Huntley.

The enquiry of the Defence Stores Department fell flat and found nothing detrimental, and further study will be required to determine why the Defence Stores Department became an anonymous participant in New Zealand’s Military Historical narrative. Is it linked to Goldey’s dislike of O’Sullivan and his belief that Quartermasters and Storekeepers were only interested in “feathering their own nests”, or is it part of the Kiwi Tall Poppy Syndrome where success is looked down on? The mounting of the NZEF was a monumental task, and the Defence Stores Department is well overdue for some recognition for the part that they played.


Notes

[1] “Defence Stores Staff,” Dominion, Volume 7, Issue 2264, , 25 September 1914, https://paperspast.natlib.govt.nz/newspapers/DOM19140925.2.47.

[2] “Correspondence Major General Godley to James Allen 26 October “, R22319698 – Ministerial Files – Correspondence with General Godley  (1914).

[3] “Correspondence James Allen to Major General Godley 4 January,” R22319698 – Ministerial Files – Correspondence with General Godley  (1916).

[4] “Correspondence James Allen to Major General Godley 13 April “, R22319698 – Ministerial Files – Correspondence with General Godley  (1916).

[5] “Correspondence Major General Godley to James Allen 24 March,” R22319699 – Ministerial Files – Correspondence with General Godley  (1916).

[6] “New Zealand Army Ordnance Department and New Zealand Army Ordnance Corps Regulations,” New Zealand Gazette No 95 (Wellington), June 7 1917.


John Henry Jerred

Located in Wellington’s Karori cemetery is the long-forgotten grave of John Henry Jerred, Assistant Defence Storekeeper, died 20 December 1902.  John Henry Jerred had served in Government service for twenty-two years from 1880 as a Police Constable, Engineer on Torpedo Boats, and as a storekeeper in the Defence Stores. However, losing a leg while in the Police had adversely affected his ability to gain life insurance, join a Friendly Society, or earn a fair wage leaving his family financially unprepared for his early death. Such was the standing and high esteem of John Jerred that his friends erected a fitting memorial to John’s life. Sadly, now in disrepair, John Jerred’s graveside and the life he had lived has long been forgotten. Thanks to the keen eyes of members of the NZ Remembrance Army, John Jerred’s resting place has been rediscovered and is on the path to refurbishment.

Born in London in 1860, John was an engineer by profession and arrived in New Zealand around 1879 and commenced his career in Wellington.

Joining the Armed Constabulary on 1 February 1880, John would undertake the initial training required and then settle into the Depot Routine at the Armed Constabulary’s Mount Cook Depot in Wellington. In September 1880, John was one of many Armed Constabulary men sent to Ripapa Island in Lyttelton Harbour as guards for 160 Māori’s from Parihaka.

Ripapa Island had briefly been utilised as a quarantine station with purpose-built accommodation for over 300 immigrants. However, with the more spacious Quail Island designated a quarantine station in 1875, Ripapa’s barracks were largely devoid of purpose until the government found a use for it as a prison for Māori Ploughmen that had been imprisoned without trial due to the Parihaka Māori settlements passive resistance campaign against the surveying and selling of its land by the government, which would lead to the 1881 Parihaka invasion.

[Medley, Mary Catherine] 1835-1922 :[Quarantine Island Port Lyttelton. 1880s or 1890s], Alexander Turnbull Library. the new Ripapa (known as Ripa) Island quarantine station included barracks, a hospital, service buildings, a barrack master’s cottage and a jetty.

Each guard was issued with a Snyder repeating rifle with 40 rounds of ball ammunition and an Adams revolver with 18 Rounds. A typical guard shift would be for 24hours starting at 9 am. Daily routine allowed the prisoners out of their barracks for recreation from 9 am to 1 pm, and following lunch, from 2 pm to 6 pm, after dinner, they would be secured in their barracks for the night. Throughout the night, the guards would be on shifts to ensure that two were always awake. Following relief at 9 am, the old guard would be required to unload the streamer from Lyttelton of provisions and coal before cleaning their weapons and standing down for the rest of the day.

He was completing such a shift on 10 December 1880, when before standing down, John cleaned his revolver. On completion of cleaning his revolver, he reloaded it. However, he noticed a spot on the chamber that he had missed in his exhausted state, which he then cleaned and, distracted with tiredness, accidentally discharged the revolver into his leg, shattering the thigh bone.

Admitted to Christchurch hospital, the leg was set. It was expected that John would after a period of recovery keep his leg, with only a limp to remind him of the accident. Unable to return to full duty, John would remain on light duties and, in July 1881, was posted to Wellington, where he took up duties as a librarian. However, John’s recovery was not going well, and in November 1881, he was admitted to Wellington hospital, with the only option being the amputation of his leg on 13 November. Now permanently disabled, John returned to his role of a librarian.

From the late 1870s, New Zealand had been under the spectre of incursion by Russia into the Southern Seas prompting what has become known as the Russia Scare. Cognisant of the potential threat, the New Zealand Government decided to construct fortifications and purchase torpedo boats to protect the harbours at Auckland, Wellington, Lyttelton and Port Chalmers. With Torpedo boats ordered and due for delivery in 1884, John’s skills as an Engineer became useful. On 17 May 1883, he was attested as an Artificer in the Permanent militia, taking charge of the machinery of the torpedo boats allocated to Wellington.

 

Example of a spar torpedo boat, http://navymuseum.co.nz/spar-torpedo-boats/

With the torpedo boats used on alternative weekends by the Wellington and Petone Naval volunteers, John could not remain on the torpedo boats when they took to the sea for their weekend exercises due to not holding the correct certification. To rectify this and increase his utility, John sat and passed the examination on 8 October 1883, gaining the required certification.

To service the construction of fortifications on the then remote Miramar peninsula, the Defence Department purchased the motor launch the SS Ellen Balance in 1885, with Jarred placed in charge of its engines in November 1885. However, with the ongoing maintenance of the Torpedo boats proving troublesome, John was put back in charge of them in January 1886.

Star Boating Club Submarine Mining Volunteer Corps, Shelly Bay, Wellington. Andrews, C J, fl 1979 :Photographs of the Star Boating Club Submarine Mining Volunteer Corps. Ref: 1/2-091774-F. Alexander Turnbull Library, Wellington, New Zealand. /records/23233117

The Torpedo Boat SS Waitemata had been transferred to Auckland during 1885 and required an experienced engineer to keep it operational, so Jarred was transferred to Auckland on 20 April 1886 to take charge of the SS Waitemata. On 4 August 1886, John was attested for a further three years’ service in the Permanent Militia.

Auckland’s climate was favourable for Jarred, but his time in Auckland would be short and in May 1887, he was recalled to Wellington to take charge of the Defence vessel the SS Isabel as the Engineer & Stoker.

In 1887, John married Mary Ann Bell, and they would have two children, Ida Isabel, born in 1888 and Harold Vincent, born 1 December 1894.

Despite John’s experience as an engineer, he was considered because of his disability a liability. In a cost reduction exercise typical of the Defence Department, John was dismissed from the service under a scheme of only keeping physically able men employed on 22 February 1888. This dismissal did not sit well with John. He appealed the decision highlighting that the savings made in dismissing him were negated because it cost more to employ civilian engineers to fill the void left by his dismissal. John’s appeals, although supported by many, was ultimately unsuccessful in reversing his dismissal. However, he has offered the caretaker position for the Ministerial Residence on Tinakori Road in Wellington in compensation.

Returning to the employ of the Defence Department on 9 December 1889, John was appointed as Arms Cleaner in the Defence Stores. Under the Defence Storekeeper, Captain Sam Anderson, John was not utilised as an Arms Cleaner but was employed in Clerical and General Store Work. On the death of William Warren, one of the Defence Stores Storeman on 28 January 1894, John was appointed as Acting Storeman.

On 28 September 1899, the New Zealand Premier’ King Dick’ Seddon offered to the Imperial Government in London, in the event of war with the Boer Republics, the services of a contingent of Mounted Infantry for service in South Africa. The offer was accepted, and when war broke out on 11 October 1899, New Zealand was swept up in a wave of patriotic fervour. This mobilisation would push the Defence Stores Department to its limits as it equipped the New Zealand Contingents to the war in South Africa. From 6 to 21 October 1899, under the direct supervision of the Under-Secretary for Defence, Sir Arthur Percy Douglas, the Defence Storekeeper Captain Anderson and his small staff spent up to 16 hours daily, receiving, recording, branding and then dispatching all manner of essential items to the assembled Contingent at Karori Camp.

The Defence Stores were located at the Military reserve in Wellingtons Mount Cook, then known as Alexandra Barracks. The Actual Stores building were old and not fit for purpose as they leaked and were cold and draughty. The hours worked by the Defence Stores Staff and the poor infrastructure would take its toll on the Staff of the Defence Stores.

Scene in Mount Cook, Wellington, taken between 1882 and 1931 from Tasman Street, showing Mount Cook Prison/Alexandra Barracks (top, to left). Photographer unidentified.Ref: 1/2-066816-G. Alexander Turnbull Library, Wellington, New Zealand. /records/22855721

On 7 December 1899, the Defence Storekeeper, Captain Sam Anderson, suddenly died. This was at a critical time as the Defence Stores Department, which after years of neglect, was at breaking point due to the mobilisation. Captain James O’Sullivan, a long time and experienced member of the Defence Stores, succeeded Anderson as acting Defence Storekeeper.

Anderson Death was followed by the death of the Assistant Defence Storekeeper, Mr Thomas Henry Sewell, in June 1900. John replaced Sewell.

With further contingents sent to South Africa, the pace of work at the Defence Stores did not lessen. Despite his disability, John had a robust constitution. Still, the strain of long hours and a poor working environment took a toll on his system, leading to an attack of acute pneumonia, and after four days of illness, John died on 20 December 1902 at the age of forty-six.

Johns death was unfortunate for his family and placed them in a dire financial position. Having lost one of his legs, John was ineligible for life insurance and could not join a Friendly Society. His salary was so small that it prevented him from making adequate provisions for his family’s future. To make ends meet, Mary attempted to find work but illness and hospitalisation requiring surgery incapacitated her further. Some relief was found when on two occasions, she partitioned the Premier and the House of Representatives for assistance. Her petitions were supported by Johns long service and supporting statements from prominent members of the Defence Department and Government. The Under Secretary of Defence stated to the House that John “was highly valued as a most efficient Clerk and thoroughly zealous and painstaking officer by his immediate superiors.” Also assisting Mary in her petitions were several articles in the press that highlighted the poor working conditions in the Defence Stores and how those poor conditions had contributed to the poor health of many of the Defence Stores staff. Mary’s petitions were successful, and she was granted two grants, each of €50 (2021 NZ$9,319.35).

Considering John’s service, when Mary decided to relocate her family to Woolston in Christchurch in 1903, the Minister of Railways covered the expenses for her household removal from Wellington to Christchurch.

A wide circle of friends deeply regretted johns’ death. As a tribute to their departed friend, they covered the costs of erecting a memorial stone at Johns grave in the Karori Cemetery.

Copyright © Robert McKie 2021


NZ Divisional Laundry and Baths, 1916 – 1918

A significant function of the New Zealand Army Ordnance Corps as part of the New Zealand Expeditionary Force during the First World War was managing the New Zealand Divisional Laundries and Baths. The Laundry and Bath functions would help maintain the New Zealand Division’s hygiene by providing the opportunity for regular bathing, the exchanging of underclothing and socks and the delousing of uniforms. Although the NZ Division s Laundry and Bath functions were interconnected with its neighbouring Divisions and supporting Corps, this article’s focus is on providing a snapshot of the NZ Divisions Laundry and Bath operations from October 1916 to June 1918.

At the onset of the First World War in part due to the lessons learnt in the South African War and the more recent Balkan Wars, the British Army had a reasonable understanding of the importance of hygiene in the field and published The Manual of Elementary Military Hygiene in 1912.[1]  However, as with any military doctrine, the practical application of the field hygiene lessons learnt would take time to become effective in the early years of the War. However, by the time the New Zealand Division arrived at the Western Front in mid-1916, the British Army had a rudimentary Laundry and Bath system at the Corps and Divisional level in which the New Zealand Division would be integrated into.

Command and Control

Initially, as the New Zealand Division took over the existing Laundry and Baths from British units, these functions were initially vested as a responsibility of the New Zealand Medical Corps, who provided officers and men to supplement he existing civilian staff.[2]  In line with British practice both the Divisional Laundry and Baths came under the control of the Division Headquarters “Q” Branch, and from 21 December 1916, the New Zealand Division, Deputy Assistant Director of Ordnance Services (DADOS) was the officer responsible for the running of the Divisional Laundry and Baths.[3]

Baths

The Bathing concept was that four Bathhouses were to be established in a Divisional area: usually one Bathhouse for each Infantry brigade and on Bathhouse for the rest of the Division.  The concept was that Soldiers would rotate through Bathhouse on a schedule to allow the entire Division to be bathed once every ten days. In the early years of the war Bathing facilities were rudimentary with Baths ranging from breweries or fabric processing plants to Beer barrels cut in half.[4]   

British soldiers washing in makeshift baths possibly near Armentieres, 1915. Copyright: © IWM.

Although initially built on an ad-hoc basis using whatever resources were available, by 1917 most Bathhouses in the New Zealand Division were built and operated on a uniform pattern: [5]

A typical Bathhouse would be operated as follows.

  • The men enter at 1, Undress and hand their Service Dress and valuables in at 2(Obtaining receipt) and dirty underclothes at 3.
  • They then have a hot shower in D
  • While the men are having their showers, the seams of their Service Dress Tunics and Trousers were ironed to kill lice, and small repairs were undertaken.
  • Upon completing the shower, the men enter F, collect a towel, clean underclothes at 4 and their Service Dress and valuables at 5. Dress and leave by 6.
  • All Towels and dirty underclothes are sent from the baths to the Divisional Laundry daily, and a supply of clean or new items received in exchange.

In June 1918 the system of delousing the soldier’s Service Dress clothing was improved using the Thresh Disinfector Delousing Chamber. As soldier passed into the Bathhouse, the soldier’s Service Dress would be turned inside out and handed over to the Thresh operators. The Garments would be hung up inside the Thresh’s airtight chamber and sealed. Coke braziers then heated the airtight chamber, and after the garments had been treated by this method for 15 minutes, they were found to be entirely free form lice and eggs.[6]

Personnel employed in the Divisional usually consisted of

  • A Non-Commissioned Officer (NZAOC).[7]
  • Locally employed civilian women for ironing and mending.

Depending on the ebb and flow of the battle and the New Zealand Division’s movement, between October 1916 and June 1918 the DADOS War Diary records that Bathhouses to support the NZ Division were established in over thirty-four different locations.[8] On most occasions, existing bathhouses were taken over from other Divisions. If there were no existing Bathhouse or the ones taken over were not suitable, NZ Engineers would be employed to construct new bathhouses.[9]

Plan for the NZ Divisional Baths as Vauchelles. Archives New Zealand

By June 1918, the New Zealand Divisional Bathhouse system was operating effectively and bathing on average between 700 – 800 troops daily, with 46411 men passing through the Divisional Bathhouses in total.[10]

New Zealand soldiers recently in the trenches outside the Divisional Baths, France. Royal New Zealand Returned and Services’ Association :New Zealand official negatives, World War 1914-1918. Ref: 1/2-013160-G. Alexander Turnbull Library, Wellington, New Zealand. /records/23139145
Soldiers after leaving the line wait their turn for a bath. Royal New Zealand Returned and Services’ Association :New Zealand official negatives, World War 1914-1918. Ref: 1/2-012817-G. Alexander Turnbull Library, Wellington, New Zealand. /records/23097155

Laundry

On most occasions, the Division would be relieving an existing Division in the area and would take over the existing Divisional Laundry as a going concern. However, there were occasions when a Laundry would have to be established from the ground up, such as when the Division Laundry and Baths at Pont de Nieppe were destroyed by enemy shell fire in April 1917.[11]

The Divisional Laundry would receive dirty garments from the Baths, (underclothes, socks, and towels) where they would be disinfected, washed, and mended and placed into a reissue pool.[12] 

Usually, the Divisional Laundry would place indents on the supply chain for new items to replace items beyond repair, however, in January 1918 authority was granted for the Divisional Baths to hold a pool of new clothing to me maintained consisting of: [13]

  • 5000 shirts
  • 13100 vests woollen
  • 12450 Drawers Woollen
  • 12700 Towels
  • 19000 pairs of socks

By 1918 the average output from the New Zealand Divisional Laundry was 35,000 – 40,000 garments per week.

Personnel employed in the Divisional Laundry usually consisted of.

  • 1 Officer (NZAOC)
  • 20 Other Ranks.[14]
  • 142 Civilians
    • 1 Forewoman @ 60 Centines per hour
    • 1 Assistant @ 50 Centines per hour
    • 50 Seamstresses @ 40 Centines per hour
    •  70 Laundresses @ 40 Centines per hour
    • 10 Helpers @ 30 Centines per hour
    • 10 Drying Room Hands @ 40 Centines per hour
French women employed in an Army laundry, hanging out soldiers’ shirts to dry at Poperinghe, 30 September 1917. Copyright: © IWM.

Between October 1916 and June 1918, as the NZ Division moved, the NZ Divisional Laundry would also be relocated and established in new locations, some of the known sites were

  • October 1916 Located at Estaires.
  • Pont de Nieppe, Laundry destroyed by enemy shellfire, 12 April 1917
  • 18 to 25 April 1917 Established at Steenwerck, Handed over to the 8th Division.
  • Before and during the German 1918 Spring Offensive, the Divisional Laundry would be located at.
    • Renninghelst
    • Outtersteene      
    • Westoutre
    • Abbeville  

Socks

Socks were an unlikely enabler; in the extreme conditions found in the mud-filled trenches clean, dry socks were often the difference between life and death. When feet are constantly wet, as they often were in the trenches, they begin to rot. Gangrene sets in, and often the only remedy is amputation. In the First World War, 75,000 British troops would die due to complications caused by trench foot.[15]

Acutely aware of the need for clean socks, the New Zealand Division maintained a system where socks were exchanged daily. To facilitate the daily exchange, a dry sock store was run in conjunction with the Bathhouses. Here dry socks were drawn daily by units in the line in exchange for dirty socks. The dirty sock would then be backloaded to the Divisional Laundry and exchanged for clean socks.

Once received by the Divisional Laundry, the dirty socks would if damaged, be mended, washed and once dried treated with camphor (as prevention against trench foot) before been placed into the exchange pool.

By May 1918 the disruption caused by the 1918 German Kaiserschlacht offensive had affected the supply routes with the railway service from the Laundry at Abbeville becoming irregular, and it was taking 6-7 days for trucks to travel the short distance to replenish Bathhouses with clean underclothing and socks. However, given the hygiene and morale benefits that clean socks brought, the need to maintain the sock exchange system to the forward troops was a priority. Therefore, close to the front, under the supervision of the NZAOC, a small sock washing depot was established with Sixteen men from the Divisional Employment Company in May 1918. Socks were sorted with torn or holey socks returned to the Laundry for mending, with the remainder of the socks washed by hand. In fine weather, the drying was done outside, if it was wet, the socks were hung on wires from the ceiling of a room and dried employing coke braziers. The men did excellent work, and output was 4 to 5 thousand pairs daily and kept up an adequate supply.[16]   

Soldiers washing socks during World War I, Bus-les-artois, France. Royal New Zealand Returned and Services’ Association :New Zealand official negatives, World War 1914-1918. Ref: 1/2-013179-G. Alexander Turnbull Library, Wellington, New Zealand. /records/23052031
New Zealand soldiers washing socks in wooden tubs near the New Zealand Divisional Headquarters at Bus-les-artois, 7 May 1918. Photograph taken by Henry Armitage Sanders Nº H-563 Photo source – Alexander Turnbull collection at the National Library of New Zealand. (Colorized by Marina Amaral from Brazil) https://www.facebook.com/marinamaralarts/?fref=nf See less

Gumboots

As the western front settled down into the routine of trench warfare in the winter of 1915, the time spent in the saturated trenches by British troops was limited to thirty-six hours during which the wearing of gumboots became widespread in the water-soaked areas.[17]  The use of gumboots helped minimise the effects of mud and water on exposed feet, thus limiting Trench foot occurrences. Based on the early success of gumboots, contracts were placed with the North British Rubber Company (now Hunter Boot Ltd) to manufacture over 1,185,000 pairs of Gumboots for the British army during WW1.[18]

Boots were classed as Trench Stores and usually only issued to a Division when it was on the line. The NZ Division was typically provided with around 6000 pairs, pooled, and issued from a Gumboot Store. The Gumboot store was designed with drying racks and heaters to allow the wet gumboots to be dried and prepared for reissue.

Plan for Drying Apparatus for Rubber Boots. Australian Imperial Force Unit War Diaries, 1914-1919 – Australian Corps Baths and Laundries, 2 – June 1916 – April 1918.” Australian War Memorial Archives Collection No AWM4 18/1/1 PART 2 (1918)

This article provides a small snapshot of how the Laundry and Bath functions contributed to maintaining the New Zealand Division’s hygiene by providing the opportunity for regular bathing, the exchanging of underclothing and socks and the delousing of uniforms. Although the playing a small but significant role in maintaining the combat effectiveness of the New Zealand Division, the efforts of the NZ Division DADOS Staff, the men of the Divisional Employment Companies and the locally employed civilian staff in maintaining the Laundry and Bath operations are worthy of further study to expand the historiography of New Zealand’s First World War combat enablers.

Notes


[1] Martin C. M. Bricknell and Colonel David A. Ross, “Fit to Fight – from Military Hygiene to Wellbeing in the British Army,” Military Medical Research 7, no. 1 (2020).

[2] Major J.S Bolton, A History of the Royal New Zealand Army Ordnance Corps (Trentham: RNZAOC, 1992), 71-72.

[3] “2nd Australia & New Zealand Army Corps [2anzac], Assistant Director of Ordnance Services (Ados) – War Diary, 1 December – 31 December 1916,” Archives New Zealand Item No  R23487340  (1916).

[4] Janet Macdonald, Supplying the British Army in the First World War, vol. , (Pen and Sword military, 2019), , 143.

[5] “An Account of the Working of the Baths Established in the Divisional Areas in France,” Archives New Zealand Item No R24428508  (1918).

[6] “Headquarters New Zealand and Australian Division – New Zealand Division – Deputy Assistant Director of Ordnance Services (Dados) – War Diary, 1 June – 30 June 1918,” Archives New Zealand Item No R23487667  (1918).

[7] From May 1917 drawn from No 1 NZ (Divisional) Employment Company.

[8] Based on the DADOS War Diaries Bathhouses were established at, Neuve-Eglise, Selles, Balinghem,Merck-Saint-Liévin, Watou Area, Vlamertinge, Poperinghe, Canal Bank, Bayenghem, Potijze, Hondichen, Staple, Halifax Camp, Caistre, Béthencourt, Louvencourt, Pas, Nauchelles, Pont de Nieppe, Blendecques, Café Belge

Bissezeele Cross Roads, Potijze, Ottawa, Hooge Baths Ypres, Estaires, Vauchelles

[9] Peter D. F. Cooke, Won by the Spade: How the Royal New Zealand Engineers Built a Nation (Exisle Publishing Ltd, 2019), Bibliographies, Non-fiction, 199.

[10] “Headquarters New Zealand and Australian Division – New Zealand Division – Deputy Assistant Director of Ordnance Services (Dados) – War Diary, 1 June – 30 June 1918”

[11] “Headquarters New Zealand and Australian Division – New Zealand Division – Deputy Assistant Director of Ordnance Services (Dados) – War Diary, 1 April – 30 April 1917,” Archives New Zealand Item No R23487653  (1917).

[12] “An Account of the Working of the Baths Established in the Divisional Areas in France.”

[13] “Headquarters New Zealand and Australian Division – New Zealand Division – Deputy Assistant Director of Ordnance Services (Dados) – War Diary, 1 January – 31 January 1918,” Archives New Zealand Item No R23487662  (1918).

[14] From May 1917 drawn from No 1 NZ (Divisional) Employment Company.

[15] Allison Korleski, “Next up in Fiber Nation: The Hand-Knit Socks That Marched to War,” Interweave, https://www.interweave.com/fiber-nation/episode-9-world-war-socks/.

[16] “Headquarters New Zealand and Australian Division – New Zealand Division – Deputy Assistant Director of Ordnance Services (Dados) – War Diary, 1 June – 30 June 1918.”

[17] Susan Cohen, Medical Services in the First World War (Bloomsbury Publishing, 2014).

[18] James Smith, “History of Wellington Boots: From Battlefields to Potato Fields,” Heddels, https://www.heddels.com/2019/02/history-wellington-boots-battlefields-potato-fields/.


RNZAOC 1 April 1959 to 31 March 1960

This would be a significant period for the RNZAOC. The RNZAOC School would be established, and challenges with officer recruitment identified. This period would also see the fruition of plans to re-shape the Army into a modern and well-equipped Army with the first tranches of new equipment arriving to replace much of the legacy wartime equipment.

Key Appointments

Director of Ordnance Services

  • Temporary Lieutenant Colonel H. McK. Reid

Chief Inspecting Ordnance Officer

  • Major JW Marriot

Officer Commanding Main Ordnance Depot

  • Major Harry White, from 1 May 1959

RNZAOC School

  • Chief Instructor – Major Harry White
  • Regimental Sergeant Major – Warrant Officer Class One Alfred Wesseldine

2nd Battalion, the New Zealand Regiment

Reformed at Waiouru in July 1959, the 2nd Battalion of the New Zealand Regiment would undertake workup and training that would see the Battalion deploy to Malaya in November 1959 to relieve the 1st Battalion. To enable the 2nd Battalion to conduct its training and work up the RNZAOC would equip the Battalion for the ground up with its necessary entitlement of equipment from existing holdings.

Establishment of RNZOAC School

Upper Hutt City Library (29th Jan 2020). Trentham Camp; Royal New Zealand Army Ordnance Corps School sign.. In Website Upper Hutt City Library. Retrieved 14th Jul 2020 11:51, from https://uhcl.recollect.co.nz/nodes/view/1335

Under discussion by the Army Board since 1956, the RNZAOC School was established in September 1959. Established within the Peacetime Establishment of the Main Ordnance Depot, the RNZAOC School would be under HQ Ordnance Services’ direct control and independent of the Army Schools.[1]

The initial school organisation would be.

  • A Headquarters,
    • Chief Instructor – Major Harry White
    • School Sergeant Major – Warrant Officer Class One Wesseldine
  • Ammunition Wing
  • Stores and Vehicle Wing

The function of the RNZAOC School would be to run courses and training for RF and TF personnel of the RNZAOC, including

  • Star Classification Courses – particularly for Storeman/Clerks RNZAOC and Ammunition Examiners.
  • Promotion courses for both officers and ORs.
  • Recruit training RNZAOC Personnel, including Recruit training for Group 2 personnel.
  • Advanced training for both officers and ORs, in all types of Ordnance activities.
  • Technical training in ordnance subjects, e.g. Inspecting Ordnance Officer courses.
  • Preservations and packing etc.
  • Refresher training for qualified personnel.
  • Other course notified in the annual Forecast of Courses.

Additionally, as directed by DOS, the RNZAOC School was required to.

  • Plan and hold conferences and training exercises.
  • Draft procedure instructions.
  • Test, or comment on new procedures, materials, or equipment.
  • Research various aspects of Ordnance activities.

The first course conducted by the RNZAOC School would be an Instructors Course conducted in late 1959.

First Instructors Course, 1959. Chief Instructor Major Harry White is seated 3rd from left. Officer in the front Centre id Makor K.G Cropp. Robert Mckie RNZAOC Collection

Officer Shortfall

 A forecast of the planned retirement of RNZAOC Officers up to 1962 showed that Seventeen officers would be retiring. Up to this period, the principal means of filling RNZAOC officer posts had been thru the commissioning of Other Ranks with Quartermaster Commissions, with only three officers joining the RNZAOC as Officers since November 1956. When the planned Officer retirements had been balanced against the RNZAOC officer establishment, it was found that the RNZAOC was deficient six Officers with two significant problems identified.

  • The RNZAOC Officer Corps was becoming a Corps of old men, with 83% of Officers in the 39 to 54 age group
  • The RNZAOC Other Ranks Structure was denuded of the best SNCO’s and Warrant Officers.

To rectify the situation, the following recommendations were made.

  • The RNZAOC press for an increased intake from Duntroon and Portsea of graduates to the RNZAOC.
  • Suitable officers no older than 30 years of age, and in the two to four-year Lieutenant bracket, be encouraged to change Corps to the RNZAOC.
  • Further commissioning of QM officers be strongly resisted unless there was no other alternative.

Conferences

Over the period 1 -3 September 1959, DOS hosted a conference at Army HQ for the District DADOS, Officer Commanding MOD, and the Ordnance Directorate members. The general agenda of the meeting included.[2]

  • Local purchase of stores by DADOS
  • Training of group 2 Personnel
  • RNZAOC School
  • Provision Problems
  • Surplus Stores
  • Personnel – postings and promotions
    • DADOS and OC MOD were required to provide in duplicate, personnel lists by unit containing.
      • Regimental No, rank, and name
      • Marital Status
      • Establishment statue, either PES, CSS or HSS
      • Present posting
  • Purchases for RF Brigade Group
  • District Problems

Small Arms Ammunition

The 7.62mm rifle introduction would require the Colonial Ammunitions Company to convert manufacture from the current 303 calibre to the new 7.62mm calibre. The CAC had been the supplier of Small Arms Ammunition to the Defence Force since 1888 and to maintain this long relationship had purchased and installed the required tools and machinery to allow the production of 7.62 ammunition, with the first production run completed during this period. Although the NZ Army had sufficient stocks of .303 ammunition for the foreseeable future, CAC would retain the capability to manufacture 303 ammunition if required.

Introduction of New Equipment

As new equipment was introduced, the RNZAOC would play an essential role in the acceptance processes. Upon delivery from the supplier, the equipment, accessories, and spares would be received into the Main Ordnance Depot. The equipment would be inspected and kitted out with all its accessories before distribution to units. Several examples may have been retained in RNZAOC Depots as War Reserve/Repair and Maintenance Stock depending on the equipment. Maintenance stocks of accessories and spares were maintained as operating stock in RNZAOC depots. If the new equipment contained a weapon system, ammunition specific to the equipment was managed by RNZAOC Ammunition Depots. During this period, the following equipment was introduced into service;[3]

  • 110 Land Rover Series 2a 109.
  • 144 Truck 3-Ton Bedford RL.
  • 3 Ferret Mark 1/1 Scout Car
  • 270 Wireless Sets.
  • 2000 9mm Sub Machine Gun Sterling Mk4 L2A3.
  • 500 7.62 mm Self Loading Rifle, L1A1 (SLR).

Disposals

In August 1958 a new disposal organisation was established within the Army to manage the declaration and disposal of surplus and obsolete equipment. Since August 1959 over 9000 lines covering thousands of items had been declared to the Government Stores Board for Disposal through this new disposal’s organisation.

Ammunition Disposal

The disposal of dangerous or obsolete ammunition continued with over 900 tons of obsolete ammunition dumped at sea. An additional 130,000 rounds of dangerous artillery ammunition were destroyed by burning or detonation. 

Where possible the maximum amount of recyclable metal was salvaged, with around £10000 (2020 NZ$243,276) received for the scrap and containers sold.[4]

Ration Packs

Following successful user trials, the Royal New Zealand Army Service Corps (RNZASC) assembled 24000 one-person 24-hour ration packs during 1959. Along with new solid fuel cookers, these new ration packs were extensively used by the 2nd Battalion the NZ Regiment in the build-up Training for Malaya and the Territorial Force during the Annual Camp.

Shooting Competition

Staff Sergeant I.G Campbell, RNZAOC was selected by the National Rifle Association as a team member representing New Zealand at 91st Annual Prize Meeting at Bisley in the United Kingdom, 4- 20 July 1960.

Award of Army Sports Colours

In recognition of his contribution to Army Sport, Major D.E Roderick of Auckland was a recipient of the 1960 Army Sports Colours. Major Roderick has represented Army at cricket, hockey and badminton and was instrumental in developing the sports facilities at Trentham Camp. Within the RNZAOC Major Roderick had been a long-term member of the Upper Hutt Cricket Club and a player and administrator of the MOD Cricket team. [5]

Honours and Awards

British Empire Medal

Sergeant (Temporary Staff Sergeant) Maurice William Loveday, Royal New Zealand Army Ordnance Corps (Regular Force), of Trentham.[6]

Appointments, Promotions, Transfers, Resignations, and Retirements of Officers of the RNZAOC

Regular Force

  • Major Ronald Geoffrey Patrick O’Connor is transferred to the Reserve of Officers, General List, Royal NZ Army Ordnance, in Major’s rank, 4 May 1959.[7]
  • Major and Quartermaster K. A. Bailey, M.M., having reached retiring age for rank, is transferred to the Supernumerary list, and granted an extension of his engagement until 12 January 1960, 11 August 1959.[8]
  • Captain Frederick George Cross is transferred to the Reserve of Officers, General List, Royal NZAOC, in the rank of Captain, 1 September 1959. [9]
  • Captain L. C. King is re-engaged for a period of one year, as from 4 October 1959.[10]
  • Captain (temp. Major) J. Harvey relinquishes the temporary rank of Major, 6 March 1960.[11]

Regular Force (Supernumerary List)

  • Major and Quartermaster K. A. Bailey, MM., is granted an extension of his engagement for one year from 13 January 1960.[12]
  • Captain and Quartermaster S. H. E. Bryant is re-engaged for one year as from 28 October 1959.[13]
  • Captain and Quartermaster R. P. Kennedy, E.D., is re-engaged for a period of one year as from 13 April 1960.[14]
  • Lieutenant and Quartermaster George Witherman McCullough is posted to the Retired List, 12 February 1960.[15]
  • 2nd Lieutenant J. T. Skedden to be Lieutenant, 12 December 1959.[16]
  • Lieutenant and Quartermaster R. H. Colwill to be temporary Captain and Quartermaster, 9 February 1960.[17]

Territorial Force

  • Captain Keith Stothard Brown relinquishes the appointment of OC, Technical Stores Platoon, 1st Divisional Ordnance Field Park, RNZAOC and is posted to the Retired List, 4 August 1959.[18]

Reserve of Officers

  • Captain Hugo Sarginsone posted to the Retired List, 10 July 1959.[19]
  • Captain Noel Lester Wallburton posted to the Retired List, 10 August 1959.[20]
  • Captain Sidney Paxton Stewart posted to the Retired List, I September 1959. [21]
  • Major Percival Nowell Erridge, MBE posted to the Retired List, 25 December 1959.[22]
  • Major Alexander Basil Owen Herd, from the British Regular Army Reserve· of Officers, to be Major, 3 October I 959.[23]
  • Major Frank Owen L’Estrange, from the British Regular Army Reserve of Officers, to be Major, 11 November 1959.[24]
  • Captain Cyril Peter Derbyshire, from the British Regular Army Reserve of Officers, to be Captain, 1 January 1960.[25]

Appointments, Promotions, Transfers, Resignations, and Retirements of Warrant Officers, Senior Non-Commissioned Officers, and men of the RNZAOC

Regular Force

  • H594833 Private David Orr NZ Regiment Transferred into the RNZAOC, November 1959.
  • B31685 Staff Sergeant Ian McDonald Russell promoted to Temporary Warrant Officer Class Two, 23 June 1959.

Notes

[1] “Charter for the Rnzaoc School,”  in Organisation – Policy and General – RNZAOC (Archives New Zealand No R173115371960); Major J.S Bolton, A History of the Royal New Zealand Army Ordnance Corps (Trentham: RNZAOC, 1992), 176-77, 252.

[2] Conferences – Ordnance Officers, Item Id R17188101 (Wellington: Archives New Zealand, 1950).

[3] “H-19 Military Forces of New Zealand Annual Report of the General Officer Commanding, for Period 1 April 1959 to 31 March 1960,” Appendix to the Journals of the House of Representatives  (1960).

[4] Ibid.

[5] “Army Sports Colours,” Upper Hutt Leader, Volume XVII, Number 11, 24 March 1960.

[6] “Appointments, Promotions, Transfers, and Resignations, of Officers of the New Zealand Army,” New Zealand Gazette, No 35, 18 June 1959.

[7] “Appointments, Promotions, Transfers, and Resignations, of Officers of the New Zealand Army,” New Zealand Gazette, No 31, 28 May 1959.

[8] “Appointments, Promotions, Transfers, and Resignations, of Officers of the New Zealand Army,” New Zealand Gazette, No 56, 17 September 1959.

[9] Ibid.

[10] “Appointments, Promotions, Transfers, and Resignations, of Officers of the New Zealand Army,” New Zealand Gazette, No 59, 1 October 1959.

[11] “Appointments, Promotions, Transfers, and Resignations, of Officers of the New Zealand Army,” New Zealand Gazette, No 23, 7 April 1960.

[12] “Appointments, Promotions, Transfers, and Resignations, of Officers of the New Zealand Army,” New Zealand Gazette, No 63, 22 October 1959.

[13] “Appointments, Promotions, Transfers, and Resignations, of Officers of the New Zealand Army,” New Zealand Gazette, No 68, 4 November 1959.

[14] “Appointments, Promotions, Transfers, and Resignations, of Officers of the New Zealand Army,” New Zealand Gazette, No 4, 21 January 1960.

[15] “Appointments, Promotions, Transfers, and Resignations, of Officers of the New Zealand Army,” New Zealand Gazette, No 15, 3 March 1960.

[16] Ibid.

[17] “Appointments, Promotions, Transfers, and Resignations, of Officers of the New Zealand Army,” New Zealand Gazette, No 41, 7 July 1960.

[18] “Appointments, Promotions, Transfers, and Resignations, of Officers of the New Zealand Army.”

[19] “Appointments, Promotions, Transfers, and Resignations, of Officers of the New Zealand Army,” New Zealand Gazette, No 51, 27 August 1959.

[20] “Appointments, Promotions, Transfers, and Resignations, of Officers of the New Zealand Army,” New Zealand Gazette, No 53, 3 September 1959.

[21] “Appointments, Promotions, Transfers, and Resignations, of Officers of the New Zealand Army.”

[22] “Appointments, Promotions, Transfers, and Resignations, of Officers of the New Zealand Army.”

[23] “Appointments, Promotions, Transfers, and Resignations, of Officers of the New Zealand Army,” New Zealand Gazette, No 70, 19 November 1959.

[24] “Appointments, Promotions, Transfers, and Resignations, of Officers of the New Zealand Army,” New Zealand Gazette, No 78, 17 December 1959.

[25] “Appointments, Promotions, Transfers, and Resignations, of Officers of the New Zealand Army,” New Zealand Gazette, No 8, 11 February 1960.


RNZAOC 1 April 1958 to 31 March 1959

This period would see a significant shift in the focus of the Army’s effort. The Government had decided to retain the force structure to meet the requirements of a global war and transform the regular Army into a force capable of meeting the needs of limited War. This would see Compulsory Military Training end, and Territorial Training becoming Voluntary and the Regular Force’s operational framework modified, with recruiting initiated to build up the force and new equipment purchased within the limits of available finances.[1]

Key Appointments

Director of Ordnance Services

  • Lieutenant Colonel H. McK. Reid.

Commanding Officer Main Ordnance Depot

  • Major O.H Burn to 21 July 1958
  • Major G.J.H Atkinson from 21 July 1958

Compulsory Military Training

During this period one CMT intakes marched in with the RNZAOC recruits posted to 1 (NZ) Division Ordnance Field Park on completion of initial training;[2]

  • 27th intake of 1542 recruits on 1 May 1958
  • 28th intake planned for August 1958 but not held

After 63,033 men were trained under the CMT Scheme, the Labour Government halted the CMT scheme and replaced the 1949 Military Training Act with the National Service Registration Act 1958 in early 1958.

Conferences

DOS Conference 27-29 May 1958

Hosted by the DOS at Army HQ, the agenda for this meeting included.[3]

  • DOS Instructions
    • New format and reprint
    • Drafts of instructions C/1 and C/2
  • Local Purchase
    • Spares for post-war vehicles
    • Officer Commanding Depots £25 authority (2020 NZ$1250)
    • Purchase of stores by DADOS
  • Disposal of Stores
    • Produce and items from Boards of Survey
    • Survey of Stores – Army 246/37/1/Q(Org) of 6 October 57.
  • Accounting
    • Clothing
  • Demands
    • Identification of items
    • Bright Steel nuts and bolts
    • Trade names and trade equivalents
  • Finance
    • Vapour proof packaging of stores
    • Use of export cases
  • General
    • District problems
    • Further Army HQ problems if necessary

Uniforms

During this period, RNZAOC ordnance Depots and clothing stores would introduce the following new uniform types.[4]

  • Males Other Rank Service Dress – this uniform was issued to all-male soldiers of the Regular Force.
  • Jungle Green Drill – the issue of Jungle Green uniforms to replace uniforms previously produced in Khaki Drill also commenced.
  • NZWRAC Uniform – The issue of new summer dress consisting of a green short-sleeved frock commenced. Production of a new pattern green went into production.

Disposals

Vehicles

One hundred ninety-five vehicles from 5-ton trucks to motorcycles were declared surplus to the Government Stores Board.

Ammunition

By the end of December 1958, the Makomako, Waiouru and Belmont Ammunition areas had concluded the destruction of 317,440  items of ammunition ranging from detonators to 9.2in Cartridges; this included the detonation of 108 tons of Explosives with an additional 1217 tons of ammunition dumped at sea. Makomako was cleared of dangerous ammunition.

Move of Central Districts Vehicle Depot to Linton

As part of the Central Districts Vehicle Depot (CDVD) move to Linton during 1958, consideration was given to retaining some of the functions of the CDVD within the Main Ordnance Deport. To this end, the MOD Vehicle group was established. The MOD Vehicle group took over the existing CDVD compound at Trentham and had the following responsibilities:[5]

  • Receipt, processing, and issue of all new vehicles.
  • Custody of vehicles that were considered as part of the Army Reserve Stocks.
  • Custody and disposal of vehicles held by CDVD Trentham that were considered surplus or had or been declared for disposal.

This ensured that when the CDVD completed its move to Linton, only the vehicles and equipment needed to operate were transferred to Linton.

Linton Camp Ordnance Depot Issues

Since its establishment in 1946, the Central Districts Ordnance Depots had occupied accommodation buildings in the North West corner of Linton Camp in what had initially been the wartime RNZAF Base Linton. Two additional warehouses had been assembled in 1949; however, storage space remained at a premium. Some example of the issues faced by the Ordnance Depot was; [6]

  • Block 1 Clothing Store – unable to be heated and uncomfortable for staff due to the risk of fire caused by the large quantity of clothing packaged with Naphthalene. This created a potential fire risk due to the Salamander heaters used for heating buildings.
  • S&T Block Tent Store – a multi-purpose building, used as a tent Store, repair shop and Traffic Centre. This building required repairs and was in such a state that it could not be secured against illegal entry. As the MOW estimated repairs to this building to cost at least £2000 (2020 NZ$49,882.32), the authority to repair would require approval from the DCRE. However, the DCRE had advised that this building was not worth repairing, with no alternative accommodation the Ordnance Depot was in a difficult position.

It was advised in December 1958 that because of the preliminary site investigation for a new Ordnance Depot conducted the previous year, a new building covering 125,000 sq. ft be constructed for the Ordnance Depot over the next three years.

Pending decision on the new Ordnance Depot building, the decision was made that the number of prefabricated buildings then been erected for the CDVD be increased from three to Four with the additional structure allocated to the Ordnance Depot as storage accommodation.

Ration Packs

Over the period of the1959 annual camp, the Royal New Zealand Army Service Corps (RNZASC) conducted trials of a four-person, 24-hour rations pack that had been specifically designed to simplify the feeding of Armoured units. Manufactured by items readily available on the commercial market, feedback from 1 and 4 Armoured Regiments was favourable.

Based on the NZ SAS’s and NZ Regiments experience Malaya, operations in the jungle required the individual soldier to carry and cook his rations. To meet this developing requirement, the RNZAOS was also developing a lightweight 24-hour ration pack.[7]

Cricket Tour

In February 1959 the RNZAOC would host a cricket tour to New Zealand by the Royal Australian Army Ordnance Corps (RAAOC). Major Derrick Roderick, a leading player for the RNZAOC tour to Australian in 1955, would act as the RNZAOC Liaison Officer for the RAAOC tour.[8]

Over a period of three weeks, the RAAOC Cricket team would tour New Zealand, playing matches at;

  • Devonport Oval vs Ordnance Northern Military District, NZ Lost by 20 Runs
  • Linton Camp vs Ordnance Central Military District, Draw
  • Trentham camp vs RNZAOC XI, NZ lost by 11 Runs
  • Burnham Camp vs Ordnance Southern Military District, NZ Lost
  • Trentham Camp vs Main Ordnance Depot, NZ lost

The tour was finalised on 19 February with a farewell Ball at the Trentham Camp Badminton Hall. The New Zealand Director of Ordnance Services, Lt-Col H. McK. Reid made presentations to all Australian tour members on behalf of the RNZAOC. The Australian team manager, Colonel C. V. Anderson, OBE, on behalf of the RAAOC team thanked the RNZAOC for the hospitality and entertainment provided throughout the tour, presenting magnificent silver salvers to the Trentham Officers and Sergeants messes. The visitors were farewelled the following day, returning to Australian on the MS Wanganella.[9]

Honours and Awards

Long Service and Good Conduct

  • 31259 Warrant Officer Class One Maurice Sidney Phillips, 26 March 1959

Secondment to British Army

On 27 March 1958 Major Francis Anness Bishop RNZAOC began a secondment with the British Army. Attached to the 17th Gurkha Division/Overseas Commonwealth Land Forces (Malaya), Major Bishop would be the Divisions Deputy Assistant Quartermaster-General (DAQMG).[10]

Staff College, Camberley

Captain C.L Sanderson, RNZAOD represented the New Zealand Army on the 1959 Staff College Course at Camberley in the United Kingdom.[11]

Appointments, Promotions, Transfers, Resignations, and Retirements of Officers of the RNZAOC

Regular Force

  • Lieutenant and Quartermaster A.F James to be Captain and Quartermaster, 1 April 1958.[12]
  • [13]
  • Captain Ellis Charles Green MBE., is posted to the Retired List in the rank of Major, 12 May 1958.[14]
  • Lieutenant and Quartermaster J.E Hutchinson to be Captain and Quartermaster, 1 April 1958.[15]
  • Major 0.H Burn to be Temporary Lieutenant-Colonel, 26 July 1958.[16]
  • Captain G.J.H Atkinson, MBE., to be Temporary Major, 21 July 1958.[17]
  • Captain and Quartermaster S.H.E Bryant is transferred to the Supernumerary List on reaching retiring age for rank, 27 October 1958.[18]
  • Major Patrick William Rennison is transferred to the Reserve of Officers, General List, RNZAOC, with the rank of Major, 21 October 1958.[19]
  • Lieutenant and Quartermaster A. Fraser to be Temporary Captain and Quartermaster, 16 September 1958. [20]
  • Major (Temporary Lieutenant-Colonel) H McK Reid to be Lieutenant-Colonel, 30 October 1958.[21]
  • Lieutenant J.B Glasson to be Temporary Captain, 16 September 1958.[22]
  • Lieutenant (Temporary Captain) J.B Glasson to be Captain Dated 9 December 1958. [23]
  • Captain C.C Pipson is transferred to the Supernumerary List on reaching retiring age for rank and is re-engaged for a period of one year, 22 February 1959.[24]
  • Lieutenant and Quartermaster R.J Crossman to be Captain and Quartermaster, l 5 March 1959.[25]
  • Lieutenant and Quartermaster G.W Dudman to be Captain and Quartermaster, 15 March 1959.[26]
  • Lieutenant (Temporary Captain) and Quartermaster A Fraser to be Captain and Quartermaster, I 5 March 1959.[27]
  • Captain (Temporary Major) G.J.H. Atkinson, MBE., to be Major, 6 March 1959.[28]

Regular Force (Supernumerary List)

  • Captain and· Quartermaster G.A Perry, E.D., re-engaged for a period of one year, as from 1 April 1958.[29]
  • Captain and Quartermaster S.H.E Bryant re-engaged for a period of one year, 27 October 1958. [30]
  • Captain and Quartermaster Alfred Golian posted to the Retired List, 17 January l 959.[31]

RESERVE OF OFFICERS

  • Lieutenant J.H Mead relinquishes his commission, 1 July 1958.[32]
  • Major William Patrick Chester-Dixon, from the British Regular Army Reserve of Officers, to be Lieutenant-Colonel, 16 May 1958.[33]
  • Captain F.H Pike relinquishes his commission, 5 November 1958.[34]

The under-mentioned were posted from the General List to the Retired List:

  • 2nd Lieutenant Francis Edwin Clark. [35]
  • 2nd Lieutenant Ernest Ivan Meggett. [36]
  • 2nd Lieutenant Henry Charles Foster. 
  • Lieutenant Morris James Goodson.[37]
  • Lieutenant John· Clyde Graham.[38]
  • Lieutenant Frank Whittington Jull. [39]
  • Lieutenant Graham Wootton Clark.[40]
  • Lieutenant John Ivor Martin. [41]
  • Lieutenant Francis Thomas Thorpy. [42]
  • Lieutenant Albert William Buckley.[43]
  • Lieutenant Albert Arthur Burrows. [44]
  • Lieutenant James Stewart Jamieson. [45]
  • Captain William Arthur Pascoe.
  • Captain Austin Whitehead. 
  • Captain William Mervyn Rowell. 
  • Captain Stanley Copley Bracken.[46]

Territorial Force

  • Alan Ernest Osborne to be 2nd Lieutenant and is posted to the Technical Stores Platoon, 1st Divisional Ordnance Field Park, RNZAOC, 1 August 1958.[47]

Appointments, Promotions, Transfers, Resignations, and Retirements of Warrant Officers, Senior Non-Commissioned Officers, and men of the RNZAOC

  • A30054 Sergeant Bryan Nelson Jennings promoted to Staff Sergeant, 13 October 1958.[48]
  • 31383 Staff Sergeant Hector Searle McLachlan promoted to Warrant Officer Class Two, 1 April 1958.[49]
  • 31259 Warrant Officer Class Two Maurice Sidney Phillips promoted to Warrant Officer Class One, 14 October 1958.[50]
  • 31246 Warrant Officer Class Two Douglas Keep Wilson promoted to Warrant Officer Class One, 13 October 1958.[51]

Notes

[1] “H-19 Military Forces of New Zealand Annual Report of the General Officer Commanding, for Period 1 April 1958 to 31 March 1959,” Appendix to the Journals of the House of Representatives  (1959).

[2] Peter Cooke, Fit to Fight. Compulsory Military Training and National Service in New Zealand 1949-72 (Auckland: David Ling Publishing, 2013), 539.

[3] Conferences – Ordnance Officers, Item Id R17188101 (Wellington: Archives New Zealand, 1950).

[4] “H-19 Military Forces of New Zealand Annual Report of the General Officer Commanding, for Period 1 April 1958 to 31 March 1959.”

[5] “Organisation – Policy and General – Rnzaoc “, Archives New Zealand No R17311537  (1946 – 1984).

[6] Buildings, Linton Camp, Central Ordnance Depot, Item Id R9428308 (Wellington: New Zealand Archives, 1955 – 1968 ).

[7] “H-19 Military Forces of New Zealand Annual Report of the General Officer Commanding, for Period 1 April 1958 to 31 March 1959.”

[8] Major J.S Bolton, A History of the Royal New Zealand Army Ordnance Corps (Trentham: RNZAOC, 1992), 177-78.

[9] “Australian Ordnance Farwelled,” Upper Hutt Leader, Volume XVI, Number 7 26 February 1959 1959.

[10] “Recommendations for Honours or Awards,” The National Archives (UK) Ref WO 373/135/420 1960.

[11] “H-19 Military Forces of New Zealand Annual Report of the General Officer Commanding, for Period 1 April 1958 to 31 March 1959.”

[12] “Appointments, Promotions, Transfers, and Resignations, of Officers of the New Zealand Army,” New Zealand Gazette, No 28, 8 April 1958.

[13] “Appointments, Promotions, Transfers, and Resignations, of Officers of the New Zealand Army,” New Zealand Gazette, No 34, 5 june 1958.

[14] Ibid.

[15] “Appointments, Promotions, Transfers, and Resignations, of Officers of the New Zealand Army,” New Zealand Gazette, No 36, 12 june 1958.

[16] “Appointments, Promotions, Transfers, and Resignations, of Officers of the New Zealand Army,” New Zealand Gazette, No 52, 21 August 1958.;”Appointments, Promotions, Transfers, and Resignations, of Officers of the New Zealand Army,” New Zealand Gazette, No 56, 11 September 1958.

[17] “Appointments, Promotions, Transfers, and Resignations, of Officers of the New Zealand Army.”

[18] “Appointments, Promotions, Transfers, and Resignations, of Officers of the New Zealand Army,” New Zealand Gazette, No 58, 25 September 1958.

[19] “Appointments, Promotions, Transfers, and Resignations, of Officers of the New Zealand Army,” New Zealand Gazette, No 68, 6 November 1958.

[20] Ibid.

[21] “Appointments, Promotions, Transfers, and Resignations, of Officers of the New Zealand Army,” New Zealand Gazette, No 76, 11 December 1958.

[22] “Appointments, Promotions, Transfers, and Resignations, of Officers of the New Zealand Army,” New Zealand Gazette, No 8, 19 February 1959.

[23] Ibid.

[24] “Appointments, Promotions, Transfers, and Resignations, of Officers of the New Zealand Army,” New Zealand Gazette, No 19, 25 March 1959.

[25] Ibid.

[26] Ibid.

[27] “Appointments, Promotions, Transfers, and Resignations, of Officers of the New Zealand Army,” New Zealand Gazette, No 22, 16 April 1959.

[28] “Appointments, Promotions, Transfers, and Resignations, of Officers of the New Zealand Army,” New Zealand Gazette, No 25, 30 April 1959.

[29] “Appointments, Promotions, Transfers, and Resignations, of Officers of the New Zealand Army,” New Zealand Gazette, No 21, 2 April 1958.

[30] “Appointments, Promotions, Transfers, and Resignations, of Officers of the New Zealand Army.”

[31] “Appointments, Promotions, Transfers, and Resignations, of Officers of the New Zealand Army,” New Zealand Gazette, No 17, 19 March 1959.

[32] “Appointments, Promotions, Transfers, and Resignations, of Officers of the New Zealand Army,” New Zealand Gazette, No 48, 7 August 1958.

[33] “Appointments, Promotions, Transfers, and Resignations, of Officers of the New Zealand Army,” New Zealand Gazette, No 41, 3 July 1958.

[34] “Appointments, Promotions, Transfers, and Resignations, of Officers of the New Zealand Army,” New Zealand Gazette, No 2, 15 January 1959.

[35] “Appointments, Promotions, Transfers, and Resignations, of Officers of the New Zealand Army,” New Zealand Gazette, No 38, 26 June 1958.

[36] Ibid.

[37] Ibid.

[38] “Appointments, Promotions, Transfers, and Resignations, of Officers of the New Zealand Army,” New Zealand Gazette, No 43, 10 July 1958.

[39] Ibid.

[40] “Appointments, Promotions, Transfers, and Resignations, of Officers of the New Zealand Army.”

[41] Ibid.

[42] Ibid.

[43] “Appointments, Promotions, Transfers, and Resignations, of Officers of the New Zealand Army,” New Zealand Gazette, No 64, 3 October 1958.

[44] Ibid.

[45] “Appointments, Promotions, Transfers, and Resignations, of Officers of the New Zealand Army.”

[46] “Appointments, Promotions, Transfers, and Resignations, of Officers of the New Zealand Army,” New Zealand Gazette, No 71, 20 November 1958.

[47] “Appointments, Promotions, Transfers, and Resignations, of Officers of the New Zealand Army,” New Zealand Gazette, No 7, 12 February 1959.

[48] Howard E. Chamberlain, Service Lives Remembered : The Meritorious Service Medal in New Zealand and Its Recipients, 1895-1994 ([Wellington, N.Z.]: H. Chamberlain, 1995), 242.

[49] Ibid., 289.

[50] Ibid., 367-68.

[51] Ibid., 512.


Uniforms and Equipment of the NZ Army Contingent in Somalia

The NZ Army contribution to the UNITAF and UNOSOM Missions consisted of;

  • NZ Supply Detachment, November 1992 to July 1993
  • Army personnel attached to 42 Squadron RNZAF, January to May 1993
  • NZ Supply Platoon July 1993 to January 1994
  • NZ Supply Platoon January 1994 to June 1994
  • Staff attached to UN Headquarters 1992 to 1995

Uniforms worn by the NZ troops in Somalia was based around the standard NZ Army Disruptive Pattern material (DPM) temperate uniform that had been introduced in the late 1980’s. Shirts would be worn with the sleeves rolled up and shirts untucked.

Each contingent would have variations of what and how items could be worn, but generally the combinations worn were not to dissimilar between contingents..

Ceremonial or Parade Dress

On rare ceremonial occasions the DPM Uniform would be worn with shirt tucked in with.

  • Blue UN Beret
  • Blue UN cravat
  • Stable Belt of the individuals Corps

Working Dress

Due to the harsh environment, a relaxed and comfortable working dress was adopted, which was worn in several variations including

  • T Shirt/Singlet, Shorts, Boots
  • T Shirt/singlet, DPM Trouser, Boots

The Green T Shirt was the standard issue NZ Army PT Shirt, however on occasion some individuals would wear DPM T-Shirts or green civilian T-Shirts.

Although issue of the Green Single hade ceased in the early 1980’s, some of the longer serving solders wore these older items.

The Black Shorts worn were either the standard NZ Army issue PT Short, “Singapore” Shorts or civilian items such as Canterbury Rugby Shorts.

Issue Green T-Shirt and Singapore Shorts
Old issue Single and DMP trou

Headdress

Headdress won by NZ Troops in Somalia consisted of.

  • NZ Army Beret with Corps Badge
  • UN Blue Beret
  • UN Blue Baseball cap
  • PASGT Kevlar Helmet

NZ Army Beret with Corps Badge

Usually only worn in transit from NZ to arrival Somalia

UN Blue Beret

Issued from UN Stocks in Theatre, apart from Ceremonial occasion, rarely worn

UN Blue Baseball cap

Issued from UN Stocks, worn on a daily basis

PASGT Kevlar Helmet

Worn on a daily basis. Use of covers on Kevlar helmets was not standardised, some were worn with covers others without covers.

NZ Manufactured Blue Covers designed for the PASGT helmets were utilised, these were plain blue with no markings.

Blue Covers designed for the M1 Steel helmet were also utilised as were covers designed for the M1 Helmet in the various types NZ DPM Pattern.

Blue UN Cover
No Cover
M1 Helmet DPM Cover

Boots

Although the DMP uniform was not designed for the climate, some consideration to climate appropriate footwear was given and Desert Boots were issued. Manufactured by New Zealand boot manufacturer John Bull, the Desert Boots were made of Tan Suede with synthetic rubber sole.

Each soldier was issued with two pairs of Desert boots, however a few individuals also wore the standard Black GP Boot.

Dress embellishments

Rank Insignia

As per the NZ Military conventions of the day, Rank insignia was worn as follows.

  • NCO Rank worn on a Brassard on the right shoulder,
  • Warrant Officer Rank on a wristband on the right wrist,
  • Officer Rank worn on a rank slide on the shoulder epaulets of the DPM Shirt.

Mission Brassard

The Mission Brassard was worn on the Left shoulder and consisted of the UN patch above a NZ Flag. There is evident of examples of the mission Brassard worn with the badges reversed as well. As Officers and Warrant Officers wore their rank on the shoulder and wrist, there are also example of the Mission Brassard worn on the right shoulder.

National Insignia

 In addition to the NZ Flag on the Mission Brassard, the a variation of the standard New Zealand shoulder tab that had been worn on overseas mission since the Second World War was worn affixed to the epaulets of each shoulder.

Trade and Appointment Badges

Some trade and appointment badges such as the Ammunition Technician Badge and Medic Red Cross were worn on the Mission Brassard.

Protective Vests and Body Amour

The New Zealand Army Body Armour of choice at the time was the Light Fragmentation Vest. A piece of kit totally unsuitable of the operating environment, which served more as confidence booster than as a practical protective measure.

From 1994 some of the Staff  posted to the UN HQ were issued with the much more capable Bristol Type 23 Body Amour

Load Carrying Equipment

Each NZ Soldier deployed to Somalia with the standard NZ Harness Webbing, being the early 90’s there was no set configurations with a variety of different pouches utilised with a basic set consisting a minimum of Two Magazine pouches and Two Water Bottles and First Aid Pouch.

Due to the operating environment and the impartibility of wearing harness webbing in vehicle at at the work place, most individuals seldom used there webbing with most sets spending the entire tour sitting under the individual’s cot, only to be dragged out for the occasional stand to.

Early on when the threat was perceived as low, a single spare magazine was carried in the pocket of the Frag Vest. As the treat level increased and the need to have additional ammunition at hand, many contingent member’s utilised a simple belt order consisting of pistol belt, Ammunition pouch and water bottle.

With the Infantry sections attached from July 93, some of the infantry lads utilised chest Rigs.

One set of unofficial soldier purchased vest webbing was worn by a member of the Third Supply Contingent from January 1994. This vest was worn over the Frag Vest and allowed the wearer to carry additional ammunition and items with no loss of movement when in vehicle or carrying out physical tasks. This set of vest webbing become a communal set and was also utilised the Infantry Section Commander if his tasks necessitated it.

Example of Belt Order with Ammo Pouch and Water Battle, Magazine in Frag Vest pocket
Example of Vest Webbing

Weapons Systems

The New Zealand Contingents in Somalia utilised the standard range of New Zealand Small Arms, including

  • Steyr AUG 5.56mm Rifle with 508mm barrel.
  • Steyr AUG 5.56mm Carbine with 250mm barrel.
  • C9 Minimi 5.56 mm Light Machine Gun.
  • Pistol 9 mm Automatic P226, note as this weapon had only been introduced into NZ Army Service in 1992, existing holsters for the retired Browning pistols were utilised.

Gallery

Photo credits;

  • The Somalia Journal 1992-1995
  • Authors Collection


RNZAOC 1 April 1957 to 31 March 1958

This period would see the RNZAOC continue to support Regular, Territorial and Compulsory Military Training. This period would also see the formation and deployment to the 1st Battalion, the New Zealand Regiment to Malaya

Key Appointments

Director of Ordnance Services

  • Temporary Lieutenant Colonel H. McK. Reid from 1 April 1957.[1]

Compulsory Military Training

During this period three CMT intakes marched in with the RNZAOC recruits posted to 1 (NZ) Division Ordnance Field Park on completion of initial training;[2]

  • 24th intake of 1775av recruits on 2 May 1957
  • 25th intake of 1300av recruits on 22 August 1957
  • 26th intake of 1300av recruits on 3 January 1958

1st Battalion, the New Zealand Regiment

Reformed at Waiouru in July 1957, the 1st Battalion of the New Zealand Regiment would undertake workup and training that would see the Battalion deploy on operations in Malaya on 28 November 1957.[3]

The RNZAOC would equip the Battalion for the ground up with its necessary entitlement of equipment form existing holdings, including Eighty-Nine vehicles and trailers. However €59000 (2020 NZD $ $2,999,351.94) was expended to procure additional theatre specific items, not in the New Zealand inventory from the United Kingdom authorities in Malaya.[4]

In addition to providing her stores and equipment for the Battalion, RNZAOC officer Major Jack Harvey was seconded to the 1st Battalion NZ Regiment for the duration of its Malaya tour as the Officer Commanding of C Company. [5]

Major Jack Harvey, RNZAOC Officer Commanding C Company, 1st Battalion, New Zealand Regiment, 1957-59

Members of the 1st Battalion who would later serve with the RNZAOC included;

  • Brian Crafts
  • David Orr

Fiji Military Forces

Warrant Officer Class One Murray Alexander Burt was posted on 15 July 1957, to an accompanied posting with his family to the New Zealand Cadre at Queen Elizebeth Barracks in Suva. WO1 Burt and Family would depart Auckland on the Union Steam Ship Company vessel the MV Tofus on 31 Auguste 1957. WO1 bure would return to New Zeland on 15 December 1959 and posted to Hopuhopu camp.[6]

Uniforms

A new Service Dress uniform similar to the Officer pattern Service Dress was approved for Other Ranks by the Army Board in 1954  had is design finalised and placed into production during this period. This uniform’s approval satisfied a long-standing requirement for a ceremonial and walking out order of dress to replace the existing Battle Dress.[7]

Manufacture of the new uniforms was well advanced by closing this period with the District Ordnance Depots in a position to issue the new uniforms by the end of 1958.

With this new Service Dress uniform, Battle Dress would become winter working dress with Khaki Drill the summer working dress.

Other Ranks Service Dress

Ammunition

The demolition of the 17000 rounds of unsafe 3.7inch Anti Aircraft Ammunition that had been initiated in June 1955 was concluded in December 1957. The destruction had proceeded without incident with the local residences thanked for their considerable forbearance in putting up with the noise of explosions nearly every day.

During this period, demolitions were also successfully conducted at the Makomako Ammunition area to dispose of a large quantity obsolete and unsafe ammunition and explosives.[8]

Move of Central Districts Vehicle Depot to Linton

The move of the Central Districts Vehicle Depot (CDVD) was planned to occur during 1958. Before the move could happen, adequate storage had to be constructed at Linton Camp, and this was to be achieved by re-locating war surplus buildings from other locations. By June 1957 the second “W” Type prefabricated building for the CDVD was re-located from Fort Dorset to Linton Camp.[9]

Construction Of New Ordnance Depot for Linton Camp

Since its establishment in 1946, the Central Districts Ordnance Depots had occupied accommodation buildings in the North West corner of Linton Camp in what had initially been the wartime RNZAF Base Linton. Two additional warehouses had been assembled in 1949; however, storage space remained at a premium. In June 1957 Army HQ authorised the expenditure of £100 (2020 NZ$5,059.84) to conduct a preliminary site investigation for a new Ordnance Depot for Linton Camp. Given the deficiencies of adequate Storage accommodation and the erection of buildings for the CDVD, the Linton Camp Command issued instructions that the CDOD were not to utilise the new buildings, even temporarily as this would become permanent and prejudice the business case for constructing a new Ordnance Depot.[10]

Honours and Awards

Meritorious Service Medal

  • Warrant Officer Class One Bernard Percy Banks, 13 June 1957. [11]
  • Warrant Officer Class One Athol Gilroy McCurdy, 10 October 1957. [12]

Appointments, Promotions, Transfers, Resignations, and Retirements of Officers of the RNZAOC

Regular Force

  • Regular Force Major H. McK. Reid to be temp. Lieutenant-Colonel, and is appointed Director of Ordnance Services, dated 1 April 1957.[13]
  • Captain E.C Green, MBE, is re-engaged for one year, as from 1 April 1957.[14]
  • Lieutenant-Colonel F. Reid, OBE, relinquished Director of Ordnance Services’ appointment, pending retirement, 31 March 1957.[15]
  • Captain P.N Erridge, MBE., transferred to the Reserve of Officers, General List, The Royal N.Z. Army Ordnance Corps, in the rank of Major, 2 May 1957.[16]
  • Captain A.B West to be Major, 1 July 1957,[17]
  • Lieutenant F.G Cross to be Captain,  13 August 1957.[18]
  • Lieutenant Colonel F Reid, O.B.E., posted to the Retired List, 16 August 1957.[19]
  • Captain H.P White to be Major. Dated 18 October 1957.[20]
  • Captain and Quartermaster R.P Kennedy, E.D., granted an extension of his engagement for a period of one year as from 13 April 1958.[21]
  • Captain (Temporary Major) F.A Bishop to be Major. Dated 12 December 1957.[22]
  • Lieutenant and Quartermaster (on probation) L.E Autridge is confirmed in his present rank and seniority.[23]
  • Lieutenant and Quartermaster (on probation) 0.C Prouse is confirmed in his present rank and seniority.[24]
  • Lieutenant and Quartermaster (on probation) D.H Rollo, MBE., is confirmed in his present rank and seniority.[25]

Regular Force (Supernumerary List)

  • Captain and Quartermaster R.P Kennedy, E.D, re-engaged in the Regular Force for one year from 13 April 1957.[26]
  • Captain and Quartermaster E.R. Hancock posted to the Retired List, 30 March 1957.[27]
  • Major and Quartermaster I.S. Miller, E.D., is posted to the Retired List, 20 April 1957.[28]
  • Captain and Quartermaster G.A Perry, E.D.,  re-engaged for one year from 1 April 1957.[29]
  • Captain and Quartermaster A.A Barwick posted to the Retired List, 3 August 1957.[30]
  • Captain and Quartermaster A Gollan granted an extension of his engagement for one year, as from 19 December 1957.[31]

Reserve of Officers

  • Lieutenant-Colonel Maurice Salam Myers. posted to the Retired List, 1 January 1958.[32]

Appointments, Promotions, Transfers, Resignations, and Retirements of Warrant Officers, Senior Non-Commissioned Officers and men of the RNZAOC

Regular Force

  • 31266 Warrant Officer Class One, Cyril Austin Baigent to be Lieutenant and Quartermaster, 15 July 1957.[33]
  • 33297 Warrant Officer Class Two, Henry Williamson to be Lieutenant and Quartermaster, 15 July 1957.[34]
  • 33635 Warrant Officer Class Two, William Edwin Smith to be Lieutenant and Quartermaster, 15 July 1957.[35]
  • 31261 Staff Sergeant Ernest Maurice Alexander Bull, Promoted to Warrant Officer Class Two, 30 October 1957.[36]
  • 31257 Warrant Officer Class Two  Murray Alexander Burt, Promoted to Warrant Officer Class One, 15 July 1957.[37]
  • B31695 Sergeant Ian McDonald Russell promoted to Staff Sergeant, 23 April 1957.[38]

Notes

[1] “Appointments, Promotions, Transfers, and Resignations, of Officers of the New Zealand Army,” New Zealand Gazette, No 35, 2 May 1957.

[2] Peter Cooke, Fit to Fight. Compulsory Military Training and National Service in New Zealand 1949-72 (Auckland: David Ling Publishing, 2013), 539.

[3] Brian Clamp and Doreen Clamp, 1st Battalion the New Zealand Regiment (1957-59) Association 50th Anniversary. The First of the First (B. Clamp, 2007), Non-fiction.

[4] “H-19 Military Forces of New Zealand Annual Report of the General Officer Commanding, for Period 1 April 1957 to 31 March 1958,” Appendix to the Journals of the House of Representatives  (1958).

[5] Clamp and Clamp, 1st Battalion the New Zealand Regiment (1957-59) Association 50th Anniversary. The First of the First.

[6] Howard E. Chamberlain, Service Lives Remembered : The Meritorious Service Medal in New Zealand and Its Recipients, 1895-1994 ([Wellington, N.Z.]: H. Chamberlain, 1995), 69-70.

[7] “H-19 Military Forces of New Zealand Annual Report of the General Officer Commanding, for Period 1 April 1957 to 31 March 1958.”

[8] Ibid.

[9] John Mitchell, Buildings, Linton Camp, Central Ordnance Depot, Item Id R9428308 (Wellington: New Zealand Archives, 1955 – 1968 ).

[10] Ibid.

[11] Chamberlain, Service Lives Remembered : The Meritorious Service Medal in New Zealand and Its Recipients, 1895-1994.

[12] Ibid., 283.

[13] “Appointments, Promotions, Transfers, and Resignations, of Officers of the New Zealand Army.”

[14] Ibid.

[15] “Appointments, Promotions, Transfers, and Resignations, of Officers of the New Zealand Army,” New Zealand Gazette, No 38, 16 May 1957.

[16] “Appointments, Promotions, Transfers, and Resignations, of Officers of the New Zealand Army,” New Zealand Gazette, No 42, 30 May 1957.

[17] “Appointments, Promotions, Transfers, and Resignations, of Officers of the New Zealand Army,” New Zealand Gazette, No 45, 1 August 1957.

[18] “Appointments, Promotions, Transfers, and Resignations, of Officers of the New Zealand Army,” New Zealand Gazette, No 62, 29 August 1957.

[19] “Appointments, Promotions, Transfers, and Resignations, of Officers of the New Zealand Army,” New Zealand Gazette, No 66, 12 September 1957.

[20] “Appointments, Promotions, Transfers, and Resignations, of Officers of the New Zealand Army,” New Zealand Gazette, No 3, 16 January 1958.

[21] Ibid.

[22] “Appointments, Promotions, Transfers, and Resignations, of Officers of the New Zealand Army,” New Zealand Gazette, No 13, 20 February 1958.

[23] Ibid.

[24] Ibid.

[25] Ibid.

[26] “Appointments, Promotions, Transfers, and Resignations, of Officers of the New Zealand Army,” New Zealand Gazette, No 27, 4 April 1957.

[27] “Appointments, Promotions, Transfers, and Resignations, of Officers of the New Zealand Army.”

[28] “Appointments, Promotions, Transfers, and Resignations, of Officers of the New Zealand Army.”

[29] “Appointments, Promotions, Transfers, and Resignations, of Officers of the New Zealand Army,” New Zealand Gazette, No 46, 20 June 1957.

[30] “Appointments, Promotions, Transfers, and Resignations, of Officers of the New Zealand Army.”

[31] “Appointments, Promotions, Transfers, and Resignations, of Officers of the New Zealand Army,” New Zealand Gazette, No 86, 14 November 1957.

[32] “Appointments, Promotions, Transfers, and Resignations, of Officers of the New Zealand Army.”

[33] “Appointments, Promotions, Transfers, and Resignations, of Officers of the New Zealand Army,” New Zealand Gazette, No 60, 15 August 1957.

[34] Ibid.

[35] Ibid.

[36] Chamberlain, Service Lives Remembered : The Meritorious Service Medal in New Zealand and Its Recipients, 1895-1994.

[37] Ibid.

[38] Ibid., 410-11.


NZAOC relief efforts, Napier earthquake 3 February 1931

For two and a half minutes from10:47 on the morning of 3 February 1931, Napier and the surrounding province of Hawkes Bay shook as a magnitude 7.8 earthquake triggered New Zealand’s deadliest natural disaster killing 256 people.

Thankfully for Napier’s surviving citizens, HMS Veronica of the New Zealand Division of the Royal Navy had just arrived in port and was immediately able to provide Bluejackets, Marines and material towards the relief efforts. HMS Veronica was also able to establish radio communications with the outside world, and hasten the dispatch of relief supplies from Auckland. HMS Dunedin and Diomede were soon delivering additional Medical Staff, Bluejackets and Marines to assist. Also, the navy vessels carried much needed medical and camp equipment including,  marquees, tents, blankets, beds and hand tools

However, additional relief supplies were urgently required, and the Main Ordnance Depot in Trentham was called upon to supply tents, blankets, bedding, cooking and eating utensils, for use in the stricken areas. The total value of the stores issued from the Main Ordnance Depot at Trentham was £35,000 (2020 NZ$3,842,326.23)

The earthquake had stuck less than a week after the NZAOC had undergone a significant and extremely unpopular reduction in its military Staff with many compulsory retired with others retained in the same role but transferred to the civilian Staff. However, despite this recent staff reduction, the remaining Ordnance staff did outstanding work in dispatching the required stores to support the relief efforts.

An example of the contribution the Ordnance Staff is provided by one of the Ordnance soldiers who had been transferred to the civilian staff, Gordon Bremner. s. Bremner’s skill as a lorry driver was put to full use making multiple trips delivering stores and equipment to Napier and Hastings.

Relief camp in Nelson Park, Napier, after the 1931 earthquake. Alexander Turnbull Library, Wellington, New Zealand. /records/23061357
Aerial view of Napier after the 1931 earthquake. Alexander Turnbull Library, Wellington, New Zealand. /records/22711223

All military staff members in the earthquake area were detailed for relief work and personnel from other centers, and on the 6 March 1931, there were twelve officers and forty-six other ranks employed in connection with the relief camps. All ranks and the military civilian staff engaged in the relief effort were deserving of great credit for how they carried out their duties under trying conditions.


RNZAOC 1 April 1956 to 31 March 1957

This period would see the RNZAOC. Continue to support Regular, Territorial and Compulsory Military Training. This period would see the winding down and cessation of direct RNZAOC support to Kay Force.[1]

Key Appointments

Director of Ordnance Services

  • Lieutenant Colonel F Reid, OBE, relinquished the appointment on 31 march 1957.

Commanding Officer Main Ordnance Depot

  • Major O.H Burn.

Compulsory Military Training

During this period four CMT intakes marched in with the RNZAOC recruits posted to 1 (NZ) Division Ordnance Field Park on completion of initial training;[2]

  • 20th intake of 2475av recruits on 5 April 1956
  • 21st intake of 2475av recruits on 28 June 1956
  • 22nd intake of 1775av recruits on 20 September 1956
  • 23rd intake of 1775av recruits on 3 January 1957
4th New Zealand Division ordnance Field park on parade Trentham, Camp 17 October 1956. WO In charge Gavin Lake Right-hand rank from the from Peter Barret, Bill Smith, mauri Philips, Jim Bremner, Brian Jennings, Peter Rennie, Murray Burt, Dave Laidlaw, Jim Brown. Middle-Rank Leading is Kevin Anderson. Left-Rank Leading; Bert Roil followed by Tex Rickard. Robert Mckie RNZAOC Collection

Emergency Force (Kayforce)

The RNZAOC concluded its commitment to Kayforce with the final Ordnance men’s return in the latter half of 1956.

Out of Kayforce

  • 204459  Temporary Sergeant Gordon Winstone East, 31 August 1956
  • 204702 Temporary Sergeant Ernest Radnell, 31 August 1956
  • 30419 Captain John Barrie Glasson, 3-Sep-56
  • 206870  Staff Sergeant James Russell Don, 29 December 1956

Ordnance Conferences

DOS Conference August 1956

The Director of Ordnance Services hosted a conference of the District Ammunition and Ordnance Depots’ Officer Commanding and the District DADOS at Trentham Camp over 11 – 14 August 1956.[3]  

The agenda for the conference included.

  • Modified accounting procedure,
  • Depot Commanders to visit MOPD for local discussions,
  • Corps Matters,
  • District Problems.

DOS Conference March 1957

The Director of Ordnance Services hosted a conference of the Officer Commanding of the District Ammunition and Ordnance Depots and the District DADOS at Trentham Camp over 26 to 28 March 1957.  

Ammunition Examiners Course

From April to September 1956, Warrant Officer Class Two David Gwynne Thomas attended and passed with excellent results the Ammunition Examiners Course at the RAAOC Corps School at Broadmeadows in Victoria, Australia.[4]

Corps History

During 1956 the Royal Army Ordnance Corps in the United Kingdom established the RAOC Museum at the RAOC Training centre at Blackdown. The museum’s concept was to establish a Commonwealth Section to illustrate the links between the various commonwealth Ordnance Corps and the RAOC.  In August 1956 the Director of Ordnance (UK) put out a call to the DOS’s or Australia, Canada, Ceylon, India, Pakistan and New Zealand to contribute material for the planned exhibit.

New Zealand replied on 24 January 1957 that as the RNZAOC had only been in existence for a short period, items of historical interest were not available and the RNZAOC would be unable to contribute to this project.[5]

Honours and Awards

Long Service and Good Conduct

  • 31234 Warrant Officer Class One Athol Gilroy McCurdy, 12 April 1956.[6]

Appointments, Promotions, Transfers, Resignations, and Retirements of Officers of the RNZAOC

Regular Force

  • Captain F.A Bishop to be temp. Major. Dated 16 April 1956.[7]
  • Lieutenant and Quartermaster FG Cross is transferred to the Reserve of Officers, General List, The RNZAOC, with Lieutenant and Quartermaster’s rank. Dated 27 April 1956.[8]
  • Captain W.G Dixon is transferred From the Royal New Zealand Artillery to the RNZAOC· in his present rank and seniority. Dated 14 May 1956.[9]
  • Captain M.R.J Keeler to be Major 16 May 1956.[10]
  • Captain W.G Dixon, M.B.E., to be Major. Dated 15 May 1956.[11]
  • The under-mentioned are appointed to regular commissions in the rank of Lieutenant and Quartermaster (on probation):[12]
    • 31002 Warrant Officer Class One, Louis Eric Autridge, from The Royal NZ Artillery.
    • 36643 Staff Sergeant Oliver Cedric Prouse, from the New Zealand Regiment.
    • 33842 Staff Sergeant David Halsel Rollo, M.B.E., from The Royal NZ Artillery.
    • 31028 Warrant Officer Class Two, William Neil Stephenson, from The Royal NZ  Artillery.
  • Captain D Sharpe is posted to the retired list with the Rank of Major. Dated 25 July 1956.[13] [14]
  • Captain R.T Marriott to be Major. Dated 29 August 1956.[15]
  • Lieutenant and Quartermaster Frederick George Cross, Reserve of Officers, General List, RNZAOC is appointed to a short-service Regular commission for a term of three years, in the rank of Lieutenant, with seniority from 13 August 1951. Dated 13 August 1956.[16]
  • The appointment of Lieutenant and Quartermaster (on probation) W. N. Stephenson lapsed Dated 21 September 1956.[17]
  • Captain N.L Wallburton is transferred to the Reserve of Officers, General List, RNZAOC, in the rank of Captain. Dated 7 September 1956.[18]
  • Captain E.F.L Russell is re-engaged for a period of five years as from 26 November 1956.[19]
  • Lieutenant L.C King is re-engaged in the NZ Regular Force for the period 16 November 1956 to 3 October 1958 and promoted to Captain from 16 November 1956.[20]
  • Major K.G Scott, from the Reserve of Officers, Supplementary List, to be Major. Dated 1 November 1956.[21]
  • Temp. Captain D.R. Alexander, from the Reserve of Officers, Supplementary List, to be Captain. Dated 1 November 1956.
  • Captain Donald MacKenzie Robson, M.B.E., from the Regular Army Reserve of Officers, Royal Australian Army Ordnance Corps, to be Captain. Dated 7 December 1956.[22]
  • Temp. Lieutenant A.A Burrows, from the Reserve of Officers, Supplementary List, to be Lieutenant. Dated 1 November 1956.[23]
  • Temp. Lieutenant M.J Goodson, from the Reserve of Officers, Supplementary List, to be Lieutenant. Dated 1 November 1956.[24]

Regular Force (Supernumerary List)

  • Captain and Quartermaster R.P Kennedy, E.D, is granted a further extension of his engagement for one year from 13 April 1956.[25]
  • Captain and Quartermaster G.A Perry, E.D., is given an extension of his engagement for a further period of one year from 1 April 1956.[26]

Territorial Force

  • Captain A.W Wilkin, RNZAOC, relinquished the appointment of Brigade Ordnance Officer, Headquarters, 3rd Infantry Brigade and was posted to the Retired List on 4 November 1954.[27]

Graduates, Royal Military College, Duntroon

  • Lieutenant Malcolm John Ross, 12 December 1956.[28]

Appointments, Promotions, Transfers, Resignations, and Retirements of Warrant Officers, Senior Non-Commissioned Officers and men of the RNZAOC

Regular Force

  • 31257 Temporary Warrant Officer Class Two Murray Alexander Burt promoted to substantive Warrant Officer Class Two, 10 October 1956.[29]
  • W920917 Corporal George Thomas Dimmock promoted to Sergeant, 1 June 1956.[30]
  • 31004 Warrant Officer Class One William Galloway, retired 1 January 1957[31]
  • 1185 Staff Sergeant Albert Edward “Abbie” Shadbolt retired on 25 October 1956. SSgt Shadbolt retired at the age of 69 after 49 years and ten months of service to the military in uniformed and civilian roles.
    • Enlisted into RNZA 26 November 1907.
    • Transferred to NZAOC in 1922.
    • Transferred to civilian Staff 1931, remaining employed at the Main Ordnance Depot as a Clerk.
    • 8 January 1942 commissioned as a Lieutenant into the NZ Temporary Staff as Ordnance Officer Main Ordnance Depot, Placed on to the retired list on 21 October 1948
    • Re-engaged as a Warrant Officer Class Two in 1948, Shadbolt would latter attain Warrant Officer Class One rank as the 2 I/C of the Central Districts Vehicle Depot at Trentham.
    • Due to his age was reverted to the Rank of Staff Sergeant on 1 April 1956 and placed on less onerous duties for his last year of service, retiring 0n 10 October 1956.
  • Besides his military responsibilities, Shadbolt was an outstanding Rugby Union and Rugby league player with the following credentials.
    • He represented Canterbury XV in 1909 and 1910
    • Switched to Rugby League in 1912 and would play for the St Albans and Federal Clubs
    • Played for the Canterbury Rugby League side from 1912 to 1920
    • Represented New Zealand in the Rugby League tours to Australia in 1913 and 1921

Notes

[1] “H-19 Military Forces of New Zealand Annual Report of the General Officer Commanding, for Period 1 April 1954 to 31 March 1955 “, Appendix to the Journals of the House of Representatives  (1955).

[2] Peter Cooke, Fit to Fight. Compulsory Military Training and National Service in New Zealand 1949-72 (Auckland: David Ling Publishing, 2013), 539.

[3] Conferences – Ordnance Officers, Item Id R17188101 (Wellington: Archives New Zealand, 1950).

[4] Howard E. Chamberlain, Service Lives Remembered : The Meritorious Service Medal in New Zealand and Its Recipients, 1895-1994 ([Wellington, NZ.]: H. Chamberlain, 1995), 466.

[5] “Organisation – Policy and General – Rnzaoc “, Archives New Zealand No R17311537  (1946 – 1984).

[6] Chamberlain, Service Lives Remembered : The Meritorious Service Medal in New Zealand and Its Recipients, 1895-1994.

[7] “Appointments, Promotions, Transfers, and Resignations, of Officers of the New Zealand Army,” New Zealand Gazette No 29, 17 May 1956.

[8] Ibid.

[9] “Appointments, Promotions, Transfers, and Resignations, of Officers of the New Zealand Army,” New Zealand Gazette No 34, 14 June 1956.

[10] “Appointments, Promotions, Transfers, and Resignations, of Officers of the New Zealand Army,” New Zealand Gazette No 36, 28 June 1956.

[11] “Appointments, Promotions, Transfers, and Resignations, of Officers of the New Zealand Army,” New Zealand Gazette No 41, 26 July 1956.

[12] “Appointments, Promotions, Transfers, and Resignations, of Officers of the New Zealand Army,” New Zealand Gazette No 45, 16 August 1956.

[13] “Appointments, Promotions, Transfers, and Resignations, of Officers of the New Zealand Army,” New Zealand Gazette No 48, 30 August 1956.

[14] “Appointments, Promotions, Transfers, and Resignations, of Officers of the New Zealand Army,” New Zealand Gazette No 68, 6 December 1956.

[15] “Appointments, Promotions, Transfers, and Resignations, of Officers of the New Zealand Army,” New Zealand Gazette No 51, 13 September 1956.

[16] Ibid.

[17] “Appointments, Promotions, Transfers, and Resignations, of Officers of the New Zealand Army,” New Zealand Gazette No 55, 11 October 1956.

[18] “Appointments, Promotions, Transfers, and Resignations, of Officers of the New Zealand Army,” New Zealand Gazette No 58, 1 November 1956.

[19] “Appointments, Promotions, Transfers, and Resignations, of Officers of the New Zealand Army,” New Zealand Gazette No 1, 10 January 1957.

[20] “Appointments, Promotions, Transfers, and Resignations, of Officers of the New Zealand Army,” New Zealand Gazette No 8, 31 January 1957.

[21] “Appointments, Promotions, Transfers, and Resignations, of Officers of the New Zealand Army,” New Zealand Gazette No 14, 27 February 1957.

[22] Ibid.

[23] Ibid.

[24] Ibid.

[25] “Appointments, Promotions, Transfers, and Resignations, of Officers of the New Zealand Army,” New Zealand Gazette No 35, 21 June 1956.

[26] “Appointments, Promotions, Transfers, and Resignations, of Officers of the New Zealand Army.”

[27] “Appointments, Promotions, Transfers, and Resignations, of Officers of the New Zealand Army.”

[28] “Appointments, Promotions, Transfers, and Resignations, of Officers of the New Zealand Army,” New Zealand Gazette No 20, 7 March 1957.

[29] Chamberlain, Service Lives Remembered : The Meritorious Service Medal in New Zealand and Its Recipients, 1895-1994.

[30] Ibid.

[31] Ibid., 175.